Battle of Shiloh (1862) – American Civil War DOCUMENTARY

Battle of Shiloh (1862) – American Civil War DOCUMENTARY

This video was suggested and sponsored by
our patron Alexander Nourbakhsh. You can support our channel via patreon or youtube membership
or paypal. The four years of conflict that made up the
US Civil War were characterised by industrialization, poor leadership and enormous bloodshed. While
the tremendous casualty rates of battles such as Antietam and Gettysburg dominate popular
history, other lesser known battles were fought, each with their own tactical and strategic
importance, and all with loss of life. The Battle of Shiloh, fought on April 6 and 7
of 1862 proved to be a pivotal one in the Western Theater of the war and set the stage
for the eventual downfall of the Confederacy. By the beginning of April, 1862 the US Civil
War had been underway for almost exactly one year. The campaigning in the Western Theater
of the war had begun in earnest in September of 1961 with the securing of Kentucky by Union
forces led Major-General Ulysses S Grant’s Army of the Tennessee. The Union now directly
threatened the economic heart of the Confederacy by stationing troops along the Mississippi
River, the economic artery of the South. In response to this and to protect Nashville,
the Confederacy established Fort Donelson and Fort Henry Cumberland Gap, situated on
the Cumberland River, along the Tennessee-Kentucky border.
At the start of 1862, the 27,000-man strong Army of the Tennessee began operations against
Forts Henry and Donelson, with the strategic goal of dislodging Confederate forces and
allowing further operations into Western Tennessee and into the economic heartland of the Confederacy.
General Grant had his Army in position by early February and a combined naval and ground
assault was performed against the poorly defended forts, with their surrender occurring on February
6th and February 16th respectively. This was a significant blow to the Confederacy with
the loss of approximately 15,000 troops. Furthermore, by February 25 General Buell’s Army of the
Ohio had captured Nashville Tennessee, 117 kilometers to the east of Grant’s Army of
the Mississippi Through March, General Grant, under the orders
of Major General Henry Halleck moved approximately 44,000 men deep into Tennessee via the Tennessee
River setting up a principle encampment at Pittsburg Landing. Plans were also made for
approximately 16,000 men of General Buell’s Army of the Ohio, recently reorganized under
Major General Halleck, to march from Nashville to link up with General Grant before combat
operations would begin. Many troops from both Union armies were combat veterans, relatively
well armed and supported by artillery in the field.
While Major General Halleck was organizing Union forces in Tennessee, the newly created
Confederate Army of Mississippi was being gathered around Corinth, Mississippi, 32 kilometers
south of Pittsburg Landing under General Albert Sidney Johnston. Johnston had a reputation
as an experienced combat officer and was considered among the Confederacy’s top Generals. Of
the 55,000 CSA troops at Corinth, 40,000 of them began marching north on April 3 towards
the encamped Union army. Knowing that the Union forces had not setup fortifications
or entrenchments, Johnston’s plan called for his troops to strike the Union army and drive
them to the west, away from the Tennessee River, and away from the support provided
by Union gunboats. To the west of Pittsburg Landing lay a swampy stretch of land that
would make it easy to destroy the Union army. However, Johnston’s march to the north was
severely delayed by heavy rain causing units to get stuck in the mud. His army was not
in position to attack until the very early morning of the 6th of April by which time
his troops were tired and hungry due to poor rationing. Surprisingly, the Union forces
were still not aware of the CSA army preparing to attack. General Grant, in a bid to avoid
contacting the enemy and starting a major battle, had not posted advance scouts or patrols.
By chance in the early morning of April 6, a night-time patrol-in-force encountered advancing
Confederate troops under the command of CSA General Bragg and began exchanging fire. The
sound of gunfire alerted the Union army that an engagement was underway and they began
to form battlelines before the Confederate forces could reach them. By 6am skirmishes
were turning into more sustained contact and by 9am Union soldiers at Pittsburg Landing
were either in the line, or moving towards it
Union forces were deployed with the Tennessee River holding the eastern flank and stretched
westward, with the western flank anchored by General Sherman around Shiloh Church. As
General Johnston had decided to personally lead his Confederates into battle, strategic
command of the Confederate army fell to his second in command, General Beauregard. Beauregard
deviated from the plan of General Johnston to push the Union forces westward and instead
opted to direct his army to attack in waves, to attempt to push the Union forces to the
east, into the river. As the morning progressed, due to poor command
advancing Confederate troops became intermingled with troops from other units. However, the
intensity and relentlessness of the attack forced the Union forces to fall back in attempts
to form new defensive lines. General Sherman and General McClernand’s troops retreated
behind Shiloh Church. By midmorning, on the eastern edge of the
line of battle, flanked by General Hurlbut and the Tennessee River to the east and Sherman
and McClernand to the northwest, troops commanded by Generals Prentiss and Wallace found themselves
established in field next to a road. The position along the so-called Sunken Road became a focal
point for the Confederate assault through the day, sustaining anywhere from 8 to 14
seperate charges. The fire coming into the Union positions was so intense, that survivors
described the sound of the minie-balls in the air like the buzzing of angry hornets,
earning the name Hornets Nest. The point in the line held by General Prentiss, owing to
the disorganized withdrawal of troops on either side, came under particularly heavy fire,
including concentrated fire from 50 cannons, massed under CSA General Ruggles.
This pressure was kept on The Hornets Nest for seven hours. General Johnston was wounded
while personally leading his troops in the area. He ignored the wound and bled to death
as the afternoon progressed, becoming the highest ranking general to die in combat during
the US Civil War. Command fell to General Beauregard, who was at the rear and unable
to assess the battle. Beauregard opted to continue to assault the Hornets Nest instead
of bypassing it and attacking the rest of the Union forces, leaving the Nest surrounded,
to be mopped up later. The Hornets Nest did eventually fall and while
a tactical victory on the battlefield for the Confederates, the time and manpower expended
by the Confederate army gave Grant’s men time to fall back and establish new defensive
positions outside of Pittsburg Landing. These positions were anchored by the Tennnessee
River to the east, were well set up and supported by 50 cannons, as well as the gunboats on
the river. Beauregard’s attacks on the Hornets nest had resulted in the Union forces being
entrenched along the river instead of driven westward into the swampy ground.
General Grant, was at Savannah, Tennessee, when the fighting began, approximately 16
kilometers away from the battlefield. He was recovering from a fall from a horse and upon
hearing the artillery, began giving orders including that General Nelson move his troops
from Savannah, down the east side of the river, to reserve positions opposite Pittsburgh Landing.
Grant then proceeded himself downriver to Crumps Landing to direct General Wallace to
move his troops to the western side of the battlefield, in support of General Sherman
around Shiloh Church. General Wallace due to confusion and lack of clarity in the orders
given him, was slowly bringing his troops down the instead of the River Road. If he
had not been found and redirected by mid-afternoon, his troops would been behind the Confederate
troops, who had advanced past Shiloh Church by that time. He was forced to reverse march
his troops to maintain order and then move to the River Road where his troops could march
down to join the Union lines. His troops would not reach the battlefield until 7pm that evening,
as the fighting for the day concluded. In addition to the arrival of these troops, the
15,000 of General Buells Army of the Ohio began to arrive during the night of the 6th.
As night fell, leadership on both sides felt confident in their respective positions. General
Beauregard remaining at Shiloh Church and ignoring intelligence reports that indicated
Union reinforcements had arrived, felt that he merely had a mopping up operation left
on his hands. Confederate troops were now occupying and setup in Prentiss’s and Sherman’s
camps from the previous days but their time and focus was spent on finding food and shelter
instead of resupplying ammunition and establishing defensive positions. A thunderstorm swept
through the area during late evening, making for a miserable night for all troops.
By the morning, approximately 20,000 Confederates were heavily outnumbered by a reinforced Union
army numbering approximately 45,000 men. As early as 5:30am Union forces began to advance,
led by Wallace’s fresh troops, setup on the western edge of the line. The Confederate
army was at this point more a mass of troops rather than a cohesive force with unit organization
all but non-existent. It took until mid-morning for the CSA line to stabilize although they
remained under heavy pressure and continued to fall back as the day progressed.
By late morning, the area of the Hornets Nest had been recaptured, only to become the renewed
focus of counterattacks from CSA troops led by General Breckinridge. Despite local success,
continued attacks by Union troops forced the line back and the Hornets Nest was firmly
recaptured with the line extending parallel to the Hamburg-Purdy Road, in the area between
the Hornet’s Nest and Shiloh Church. Beauregard assessed his situation and in the
face of more than 10,000 casualties came to the conclusion that he could no longer achieve
victory. By late in the afternoon, he began an ordered withdrawal southwards, back towards
Corinth. They were pursued by a small number of Union troops, led by General Wallace but
little support was provided from the rest of the army, now exhausted after two days
of fighting and the pursuit forces fell back northwards into their own lines.
Confederate casualties of 10,699 men and Union casualties of 13,047 men made the two day
battle the bloodiest battle in American history to that point. Hope of quick, decisive victory
for either side faded as the bloody war of attrition set in.
Union forces had not only prevailed on the field of battle but continued to hold the
strategic initiative in the Western Theater of the war. Overall, the Union victory at
Shiloh allowed them to continue further operations in Tennessee and Mississippi leading to the
fall of both Memphis and later of Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi
River and splitting the Confederacy in half. We release 2 historical documentaries per
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  1. Post
    Kings and Generals

    For now, it is not a series, but a request by a very generous patron. 🙂 Speaking of the patrons, you can support us via this link by pledging just 1$ a month – we have many plans and every dollar would allow us to produce more and better content. Now our patrons also have an access to the exclusive discord server.

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    Andy Cockrum

    Fun fact: more Americans died at Shiloh than all previous wars combined. The losses at Shiloh were the first big wake up call to Lincoln and the north that this wouldn’t be a quick and easy rebellion to squash. It’s said that Lincoln nearly fell over when he heard the news of the casualties

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    The worst outcome of Shiloh was that, with the death of Johnston, Braxton Bragg was named commander in the western theater. He was the most incompetent and over promoted of all the southern generals. Also, Shiloh came as a major shock to civilians and politicians in the North. The number of losses and the sheer bloody carnage of Shiloh led many newspapers to call for Grant's head. This theme would later be repeated in the bloody battle of the wilderness. But Lincoln was relieved because he finally had a general who would fight, unlike the hesitating and ever retreating Mclellan.

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    Matt Overbee

    Good video. The only thing I would comment on though is the Confederate general's name. It is JohnsTon, not Johnson. Overall informative though.

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    I think it takes a foreigner to do an unbiased video on the "Civil War". It's amazing to me that people's blood still runs hot over a war fought over 150 years ago, especially among Leftist in the United States. You'd think the war just ended a few weeks ago based on their postings.

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    What really would be of interest for me: The wars of Liberation of Latin-America (Simon Bolivar & Co) + Haiti. There's nearly to nothing about this in Youtube.

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    Gordon Adams

    This was really well done. You should do the Battle of Chancellorsville next. It was a big victory for the south and kicked off Robert E Lee's march north in June of 1863 which we all know led to Gettysburg a month later. It is also where Stonewall Jackson was killed by friendly fire. He made an amazing flank attack on the Army of the Potomac's 3rd Corps.

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    Gordon Adams

    A little fun fact. Out of the 98 photos that exist of actual civil war dead only 2 were from the western theater. 1 from Shiloh which showed some dead horses and 1 from Corinth which showed some dead confederates. Thats all we had from the western theater in terms of photos of the dead. The south had a hard time as the war went on getting the chemicals for the glass plates needed to make the photos because of the blockade. Also most photographers were from the north and followed the Army of the Potomac in the Eastern theater. The battles in the east were very close to each other while the battles in the West were pretty spread out.

    Some battles had 2 names. The north tended to name battles after the nearest body of water or structure, whereas the south would name it after the closest town or city. A couple examples would be Shiloh/Pittsburgh Landing, Bull Run/Manassas, Antietam/Sharpsburg, Wilderness/Spotsylvania.

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    Adrian metzler-holden

    I notice no rebel comments..You coward losers got your asses kicked by the union. Did all of you fully surrender yet? Or do you need a few more days….I’ll wait…. are there even any of you left any more?🤔 am I just talking to myself?

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    Paraguay Mike

    Ending slavery was a noble cause.But Union victory gave corrupt scumbag politicians and the future Federal Reserve Bank a stranglehold on the entire nation. RIP States rights.

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    Traditional Values

    ——-Lee and the South justly fought for their God given rights of self determination just as America's colonist justly fought the British during the Revolutionary War! It's obvious both Lee's participation and the South's participation against the War Of Northern Aggression was among the most noble, brave and exemplary acts of humanity that the world has ever known!
    ——It's obvious that Lincoln's War Of Northern Aggression was among the most immoral and heinous acts ever perpetrated in the annals of history against the Southern States and its people is both an indisputable and unalterable reality for every informed and objective individual of the, 21st century!
    ——The North's unjustifiable violence and egregious invasions against the South are grounds for reparations being paid by the United States Government to all Southern descendants of the Confederacy which must be funded to off set the pervasive atrocities committed by Northern Forces upon the South and its abject deprivation and hardships must be compensated for without
    fail in the, 21st century!

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    Intellectual Ammunition

    Murfreesboro is way off on this map lol. It is only like 25 miles southeast of Nashville. You have it in like Columbia or Lawrenceburg. Very far of like an hour and a half away. Also fort Donelson was in downtown Nashville not on the Kentucky border

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    Clay Jones

    Even today, Shiloh battlefield is in a remote area of the state. I can only imagine what it must have been like in the 1860’s.

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    Michael Barclay

    Nitpicky, sorry, but Murfreesboro is only 23 miles Southeast of Nashville. On your map, looks further South and slightly West. MTSU grad. Really do appreciate your videos and do realize you are apparently British.

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    As far as city placements are concerned, that's the most jacked-up map of Tennessee I've ever seen.

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    Richard A. Holt

    After Shiloh and the shocking casualty rate, no new infantry regiments could be raised in West TN. All the Confederate Army could do was to consolidate fragmentary units together.

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    Anthony Olmo

    I recently watched a video in another "history" channel about what its like living in the past without maps and the guy spent 10 minutes saying that people didnt have 2D maps like we do today with google maps. Then preceeded to show 2 maps, one during ancient Rome and one from late Medieval era that were both 2D. It was one of the laziest videos Ive watched and then I watch one of your videos with attention to detail plus very few voice errors and I am grateful to be subscribed to your channel.

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    Albert Sidney Johnston was the best general the Confederacy had. Possibly the best in the country at the time.

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    Jon Dillon

    "he didn't send out any scouts or patrols…."
    …..the very next sentence….
    "by chance, a night patrol spotted the Confederate army…"
    Okay. 👌

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    Darth Vitiate

    Two of my ancestors fought in the civil war one was with Grant the other was with Stonewall Jackson

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    Jeff Manley

    This is full of subtle inaccuracies and statements made without explanation. E.g. Johnston died before the concentration of fire on the hornets nest. Johnston was well behind the lines when a stray mini ball hit him. This makes it seem he was foolishly leading his men in combat…

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    Not one single "kilometer" was marched, ridden, sailed or in any other way traversed during the American Civil War.

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    This battle had 1 particular consequence that still affects us. It allowed Lincoln to issue his Emancipation Proclamation that turned blacks loose on the US and it lengthened the war causing so many more casualties because many Northern troops deserted and went home rather than fight to free blacks. Lincoln then bowed to liberal pressure and allowed blacks to enlist in the Union Army to compensate for the loss of those men and the loss of so many others due to the extremely high casualties from previous battles.

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    Jason the Historian

    Johnston did not ignore the wound, he had sent his personal doctor to look after wounded union troops. If he had a tourniquet we would have lived.

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    Blind Side

    My ancestor was in the 12th Iowa and was taken prisoner at the Hornet's Nest. Ole Gorhammer. Immigrated here from Norway. Badass dude. He was traded back and end up dying at Vicksburg

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    Da Apollo

    Imagine if he did a full documentary on all the “important” battles of the war from beginning 2 end

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    Dave Hallett

    General george mcclellan not mccle rn an. Ya stupid limey kid. Mcclellan and johnston you waste of d n a

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    Cyrus The Great

    How I wish US had let the south go. Shame on Abraham Lincoln who brought the south back to the union!

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    VooDoo Wiz

    how did the union lose 3 thousand more than the CSA if they were outnumbering them, more skilled soldiers etc? CSA was kicking ass man, i think overall war they lost less than the union

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    Antonius Britannia

    Shiloh and Waterloo had the same approximate number of casualties.  Whereas Waterloo was an ending, Shiloh was a portent.

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    I really enjoy your videos and the overall presentation is great but the sound of gunfire drowns out the narration. Also, I do wish you guys would focus on a particular ongoing series and complete it instead of jumping around. One minute you're on the Napoleonic Wars then the Chinese Civil Wars etc. Makes following the continuity difficult

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    Lee knew how to win battles but Grant figured out how to win the war. Mass mobilization, total war, attrition. One of the founders of modern warfare.

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    Abel Ramirez

    Confederate Scouts: Working their ass off, traversing the terrain to gain valuable intelligence on the enemy.

    Confederate General: Ignores intelligence reports.

    Scouts: Am I a joke to you?

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    Maciej Walczak

    I value the series a lot, but here there are some serious I think flaws in this video, animation especially.

    1. Showing Union line formed at the start of the battle is absolutely false – the CSA army had the surprise factor which lead to the situation in which Union soldiers were attacked when having breakfast (Sherman & McClelland divisions). Here you show a cohesive battle line from the start. Capturing the campsite was both a good and bad thing for CSA – the soldiers begun to loot and eat the hot breakfast which delayed the attack when it's pace was at it's highest.

    2. Hornet's Nest is shown as a part of a line as well, while the fact was that this position was surronded at the time it was captured..

    3. Ruggle's artillery fire came from a nearly point-blank distance – the guns were amassed in front of the Hornet's Nest.

    Not that I don't value the work you do, but in case a 19th century engagement which is very well documented, I think the graphics department didn't do the homework.

    Cheers! Love the channel and series.

    Basing my opinion mostly on Shelby Foote's "Civil War: A Narrative, From Appomattox to Perryville"

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    American killing Americans. Over 700,000 dead heroes and 400,000 civilians. Worst tragedy in American history and the fault of Abraham Lincoln in large part. We never needed to fight the war. If they had not receded from the union the south would have abolished slavery on it's own in less than 50 years since the rest of the world already had and in order to trade with Europe and the north world have forced a change and with all those people still alive. That's history. The south was still American soil and American blood even though they were fighting for a bunch of idiot land owners who were just protecting their interests in the slave trade unlike the normal poor white man who would've never owned a slave never. Mostly just the large plantation owners who could have thousands working in many different areas.

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    reid weber

    Good stuff. I might add that Wallace's Division was away from the main army to hold a second landing point on the Tennessee. This division was in a more isolated position because Grant trusted them due to the division containing his most veteran units that had stopped the Confederate break-out from Ft. Donaldson. Also…you forgot to mention Lew Wallace is the future author of Ben Hur…that is usually mentioned any time his name shows up.

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    Zoes Dada

    The army of Mississippi included every student from Ole Miss in Oxford, Ms. Not one returned when the war was over.

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    mena seven

    The line style battle of the early modern army were two opposite lines of soldiers with guns are shooting at each other cause a lot of casualties.

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    Brazilian American Patriotic Soldier

    I think if the South would've Won… Gave up the Slaves…Made peace it would've been better…Could've had 2 Countries… It wouldn't be the mess it is today…
    Great Video…🙏…😎

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    Patrick Wodkins

    Overall a very good video about the bloodiest battle fought on American soil at that time. One minor correction is that the North would name a battle after the nearest landmark or body of water if one was available hence double names for Manassas or Bull Run, Shrarpsburg or Antietam in this case the North would have called this Shiloh after the church. The south called it the Battle of Pittsburg Landing.

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    Ranty McRant-Pants

    Wow, no wonder they lost the war.
    Can't say it would have been the right choice but from the beginning of the battle it looked the perfect opportunity to smash the union left with overwhelming force and then turn to the river to face the rest.

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    it was the 6th of april just at the break of day, the drums and pipes are playing for us to march away…………………

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    Vigus DNA

    My Great Great Grandfather fought in this battle, he was with the Union, & I believe he was in B Company

    Edit: YES He was in 13 KY. Inf. Company B

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    D. A.E

    Need to do more, complete research. You don't have the complete storyline of what happened. I live near Shiloh and family that was in the war. Don't half do it, do it all if you're going to. If you only knew. Research research research. Amount of views mean nothing to me.

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    Save time instead of watching this one, watch the old 1956 “Shiloh portrait of a battle” that was the visitor center movie for 60 years. It’s better than the new crappy movie now being played there.

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    Dustin Taylor

    Just a side note, a few cities in Tennessee are WAY off the mark in relation to there actual location. Murfreesboro's location is less than 50 miles directly SE of Nashville, Memphis is much further south, pretty much on the border of MS and AK and Knoxville is much further East. I know this is a minor detail but my OCD couldn't help itself.

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    Giancarlo Rivas

    Wow it's almost as if the Confederates were an incompetent bunch of morons with absolutely no realistic value to the United States at the time with backwards economical, social and judicial policies that were doomed to die from the moment of it's premature and poorly planned conception. And yet people are saying that the "South shall rise again" as if it could ever recover from the pathetic display it made the first go.

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    Paul Hudson

    Although being English I am no expert on the American Civil War, which my US cousins will surely know more about. However, I feel that I must point out an apparent error in the narrative here. It states that upon the Confederate retreat,…. "they were pursued by a small Union force led by General Wallace"…. This is, with respect wrong. General Wallace was fatally wounded whist defending the "hornets nest" and subsequently died of his injuries on 10th April 1862. Whilst Union soldiers, known as Wallace's troops, may well have chased the Confederates, Wallace could not have led them.

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    Kurt Sherrick

    I live close to Shiloh and I had three ancestors fight at Shiloh. Two for the South and one for the North. The Confederates were going to attack 5 days earlier but Spring rains stuck them in the mud. If not for the rain the plan would have been a huge success. Forrest the night of the first attack had a few men dress in Northern uniforms. They discovered the reinforcements from Nashville. Forrest sent a messenger to tell the General's about Union reinforcements but somehow the chain was broken and the second day happened. Forrest covered the Southern Armies retreat.

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    William Romig

    Thanks for the video on a battle in the American Civil War. Did you forget Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry covering the Confederate retreat? He was one of the Confederate officers that escaped the breakout at Fort Donelson.

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    This is a small exert from the journal of my great, great, great grandfather, retyped in 1915, 1963 and now in 2019

    "About the first of May the Confederates evacuated Yorktown. The battle of Williamsburg occurred on the 3rd, I think, on the road between Yorktown and Whitehouse Landing. We were not engaged in this battle, but after passing through Yorktown we embarked on transports and sailed up the York River to Westpoint where we were ordered ashore. There being no wharves, this was affected by jumping into 2-3 feet of water, and wading to the beach."

    "From this place we marched to Whitehouse Landing on the Pamunkey River. We arrived here one night in a drizzling rain, which had been falling all the afternoon. We were, of course, soaked to the hide which was no uncommon occurrence in those days. Upon Breaking ranks we made a rush for the rail fences and soon had fires burning. Rails were laid in the mud to sleep on after eating our supper of hardtack, coffee, and sow-belly. Rolling into our blankets with the hard days march which we were just finished with and with no thought of the future or what it might bring us. Upon awaking in the morning we were told by the negroes (of whom were a few left– old men, women, and children) that we camped in a one-thousand acre field of wheat on Gen. Fritz Hugh Lee's plantation. This officer was a nephew of Robert E. Lee, Commander-in-Chief of the Confederate Forces, which were then retreating towards Richmond, the southern Capitol. The young negroes of all ages up to five or six years were running about naked near the houses in which they were living. There were about seven hundred slaves on this plantation when the war broke out, but at the time of this writing, all the able-bodied men were with Lee's army waiting on officers, cooking, digging in the trenches, working with the pioneer Corps, and a thousand and one other things which were necessary in army life and which our men had to do ourselves."

    – Brigham Buswell
    1st Reg't U.S. Sharpshooters Company F 1st Vermont

    His Grandson, Anor Eugene Buswell, would go on to serve in WWII in the Pacific Theater as a B-24 Pilot.

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    Indy Spotes

    Given your pronunciation, I can only assume that the gunshot that Johnston received
    also knocked the "t" out of his name…

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    Shawn Gilliland

    @Kings and Generals – Also sometimes called the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, which you mentioned.
    Good video on an important battle in the War Between the States. Thank you!

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    Some Guy

    Something like 3 to 5 million dead fighting i had my great grandfathers civil war revolver still when i was a kid, my old man got rid of it when we moved cause he didn't believe in hand guns or guns at all really. He was basically a pacifist thought wars were fought because people were to stupid and cowardly to stand up to say no and that it was all just a scam. I never thought it was that simple, but i suppose if everyone was as simple or smart as him there really wouldn't be wars.

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    I get the feeling that Napoleon would have run circles around all of the commanders on both sides in our civil war.

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