Crowd Sourcing Citizens Inputs: Community Mapping and Participatory Planning


Name is Edward Anderson, I am the Senior
ICT Policy Specialist at the World Bank in the country officer of Tanzania. And we’ve invited two experts here to
speak to us today about community mapping, using crowdsourced citizen data and
participatory planning approaches. So before we begin I would like to give
a few words to introduce the topic and frame why I think this is exciting. And then I will hand over to my colleague
Mark Ilif, who is an expert in geo-spatial tools, computer scientist with a lot of
experience in different parts of the world applying community mapping methodologies
for public planning and urban services. And then we will close with a deeper dive
on Tanzania from who is here a computer and geospatial specialist in Tanzania
who has been working particularly in. And then I hope we will have
questions from the audience. So let me begin first with
e-presentations from my site. So hopefully you’ll see now on your
screen the introductory deck and this is really to, frankly we’re
talking about geospatial tools, but not necessarily in the traditional
way many people think of geospatial. Often geospatial is thought
of as high end GIS, technical specialists providing
a larger pool of decision makers. But traditionally really serving
high end commercial applications or government applications. And it’s typically characterized as
complex, expensive, and difficult to do. But really what we’ve seen, and this
presentation is already eight years old, these graphics, is an explosion
in consumers in novices and amateur applications in
the geospatial world. And it’s pretty driven by
a number of features, but primarily the availability
of free information, free mapping data from places
like Google Earth, Google Maps, as well as location aware devices,
phones, cheap sensors, cheap GPS units. So we’re really here to talk about this much more heterogeneous world
of what’s called neo-geography. GIS still exists in high-end applications,
it’s still available, but what can also be done through
these new consumer approaches? In the ICT world, we refer to this
as part of the web 2.0 paradigm. So for the last five or six years, there’s
really been a revolution in how digital tools are developed and
used, and web services. And it’s collectively framed as Web 2.0. And what we really refer to is a shift
from using the Internet as a mass publishing platform towards
one of mass participation. Meaning that many products and services are increasingly dependant
on contributions from their users. This is a two-way flow of information. So some classic examples that
many of you may be familiar with in the open source products. Open source software such as Linux and
servers, or Firefox and browsers. But also even information. So Wikipedia is a famous example. Where this bottom-up participatory
approach has created an encyclopedia that is many times larger and perhaps richer than some traditional
models like Encyclopedia Britannica. The geo-spatial world is no different. We’re seeing these
concepts of user content through Google Map Maker and
other platforms. We’ve seen the ability for
users to change and interact and manipulate the data that
is presented to them. In this case, an example of users
changing the shape of a building, adding heights data. We’ve seen increasingly valuable use of
feedback in the form of rating systems, like a star system. In the form of comment
sections on online products. In the form of different user metadata,
statistics on usage, on and on sharing. So the key platform we really
want to talk about today and hear more about is Open Street Map and
platforms like it. Open Street Map can be thought of as
a Wikipedia of place, really an editable map of the world contributed to and
built up by users like you and I. Here we see our GPS, but increasingly
also GPS enabled devices such as phones that many people already
have in their pockets. Looking at this graph, we see in
the blue line the real explosion and the growth of volunteerism on open
street map, the number of editors online that are contributing to this
online map of the world. As well as in the pink line,
the growth in data sets. And what we can see is 2008 was
very much a seminal year for Open Street Map in terms
of exponential growth. So, I would like to sort of conclude
the Open Street Map with a short video. That highlights really how active and
how rich the status that has become. So I’m going to share with you now a clip. [INAUDIBLE] So, you should be seeing,
now, a map, really, of western Europe. Each lightning or
flash on the map represents an edit, a contribution to a piece of
infrastructure, often road networks but also housing stock, that have been made
by users in 2008 on Open Street Map. On the bottom left you see the progression
is rotating throughout the months of the year. What we see is that starts
are very much founded in the UK, but really overtaken by Germany. Very rich in terms of activity. And the United States,
as you might expect. But throughout the year, what we begin to see is increasing
adoption across the world. Indonesia, Australia, India. Even Africa is lit up. Other things you can
see through this video, it’s not just the global
coverage of Open Street Map. In certain cases entire
countries appear to light up. What we’re seeing here is
the migration of entire data sets. For instance, keep your eye on India. Hopefully, you will see most
of the subcontinent lit up, representing really the decision for
a whole dataset for this transport to be published
online on Open Street Map. So not only is there a very rich and
growing community of volunteer editors, but there’s increasing adoption
by the formal mapping and graphic agencies to share
their data on such a platform. I’ll come back now to the presentation. So what we’re really interested here
is a shift in production model or in the philosophy by which many of
these goods and services are created. And this represents somewhat the rise
of Open approaches, open data, and citizen data contributions,
open standards, open source licensing, as well as source code and applications, and
in the general world of open innovation. From a public sector perspective, the pilgrim statement looks
a little bit like these two curves. What you see,
as we shift from left to right, is increasing consumerization
of technology. As tools become simpler to use,
cheaper to adopt, increasingly those innovators, those
experimenters are not big businesses, big organizations or governments. But actually they’re individuals,
startups, universities, small groups, tech hubs. So there’s a flip, if you like,
in the traditional authorities to who is experimenting and innovating as technology
becomes cheaper and more ubiquitous. And this is part of the innovation policy
challenge that the public sector faces. The second version of this graph, I think
illustrates it slightly differently. The traditional sectors where
government really has a mandate and a comparative advantage in adopting and
deploying technology tend to use very top-down approaches for designing and
implementing services using data. And that’s what you see really
on the left of this curve, traditionally thought of
as government as a service. But in sectors far to the right,
where maybe the consumers are far ahead, they’re experimenting with mobile money. With different data services,
different messaging and communications, you may see the government lagging behind,
and in these approaches, what we’re looking
at is bottom-up innovation policies, to try to leverage what’s
going on in that ecosystem. Where maybe the government
isn’t at the cutting edge, but a public service could be. And this is collectively known
as government as a platform. So with that motion in mind, we’re really
interested to see how is this explosion in community mapping, which is very much
a consumer enthusiast-driven approach, how can it be leveraged by governments and
the public sector for policy and planning? In this bottom-up manner, so I’m gonna
hand over now to my colleague Mark lliffe, who will walk you through its
methodology and its history. Mark?>>Thank you very much, Edward. Should probably move to my slide deck. Greetings everyone. My name is Mark liffe, and I’ll be taking you through
an overview of community mapping. However, first of all
I really want to talk about the power that
OpenStreetMap can have. In areas I can see some of
the comments on the screen, talking about its use in
English-speaking communities. And I really want to emphasize
the use it can have around the world. And so, I’ll move to the video
of the Haiti earthquake. And what you’re seeing here are edits that
are being made in real time, in Haiti. And this really was a landmark event for
the OpenStreetMap community. It went from being,
effectively a subculture in certain pockets around the world
to being a proven, better, faster and cheaper method that was better than any
other traditional mapping technique. And that really was eye-opening for
the developer community. Let’s get us back here. What we found by this was that by
displaying up to date maps rescue efforts were coordinated and
planned more efficiently and ultimately that had to go
along with saving lives. So here, we have the story of a search and
rescue operation on the ground, using the maps generated by the crowd,
on the ground in Haiti. But really,
Haiti just fits into a timeline, of these community mapping events. For me I believe that it started
really with Matt Cabrera of which I can see making a lot of
comments on the sidebar, but it’s indicative of the depth and breadth
of projects that have spawned since then. Beginning with Haiti in 2010. The Tendali project in Tanzania in 2011. Jakarta for disaster preparedness in 2012. And Mongolia and
Malawi which look at smart cities and flood preparedness in rural
environments respectively. And really you’re seeing that there
are a variety of applications for community mapping and
providing baseline levels of data. This is a picture of Kibera, Nairobi which is the biggest slum
in a formal development in Africa. And there are public services here,
it has a low capacity. But services like water, transport and
electricity do exist but they’re rather esoteric and it’s quite
hard to understand from the outside looking in on what those services are and
where they exist. What we find is that communities
know their problems perfectly. They know exactly where they are within
their infrastructure, and by mapping these issues, communities can then share those
problems with local decision makers and policy makers, but
also global development networks, and they can be used to make changes
within their environments. So after the mapping this is what
Kibera looked like after the community mapping process. And what we’re seeing on the map here is
a rich set of features and information. Frankly, service providers can’t
manage what isn’t quantified. This allows people to see what
is going on in the ground, and gives voices to the voiceless. And behind this data there is a that
can be adapted to suit the needs of the community, it’s not imposed from
above, it’s a collaborative approach. So, for example, this is a member of the Kibera
community mapping a toilet with a GPS. Something very simple, but
has great power and relevance. But, really I’d like to emphasize that
the technical process of community mapping is the start, not the end. There needs to be social
processes of discussion. Understanding the themes and
features that are needed on the map. And from that point, it’s writing
engaging with community members through community forums working
with community groups. And that drives community engagement and
provides feedback. So after a time, your map gets better,
you start receiving better information. And fundamentally, by digitally
enabling these social processes. It’s not done with complex tools and
equipment, it’s done with tools that we use everyday. Pieces of paper, pens,
mobile phones, satellite imagery. And to begin with,
the tool that we would be using would be GPS and
it was around $250 in 2009. Nowadays, the same sort of GPS providing
the same level of service can be bought for $100, $150. However, the ubiquity of mobile phones and
GPS mobile phones is coming and they’re starting to offer a comparable
level of service in providing information. This can be augmented
by walking papers and printed on annotated maps and
really, this has two innovations. And this innovation on the license,
which is on the bottom left-hand corner is the Creative Commons license and this
really facilitates the sharing of data. So the data you collect through
community mapping has to be shared, it’s not something that you can make and
then keep for yourself, it’s something that can be shared
with the entire community and that’s really important to
drive adoption of the data. And secondly is the 2R code, bar code on the bottom
right-hand corner of the screen. That allows it to be
understood by a scanner or by a photograph and
then projected into the computer for easily mapping,
that just makes the process a lot simpler. So you can start to draw
information out by annotating and bring it into your computer and editing. And once you’ve got these
annotated maps printed off, it’s a simple case of
applying pens to paper and going out into the field with clipboards. And by combining these processes, we’re really looking at how-top
down government systems work. Planning for open environments is
generally driven by the top-down from the government to the citizen. Land titling, registries and systems, traditionally have government
agencies driving that process, whereas what were looking at here is
a bottom-up community engagement. And these aren’t,
they can be competing technologies, but the can be complimentary
to the traditional systems. Again, it drives this and the engagement
creates impulses of feedback loops. By engaging the systems and
generating the information, there are stakeholders in that information
and they want to engage more into it. However, you can still provide traditional
analysis of the data you’re collecting. This shows water availability and drainage
lines within an area of Mathare in Kenya. You can also use it to
augment that analysis, allowing you to dive deeper into the data. This map shows toilet users in Mathare, so you’re going beyond
the traditional points on a map. You’re actually engaging with the data you
already have and already collected and you’re starting to offer a better
understanding of frequency of use, which can then be used within planning processes
of where do we need to put new toilets? Where do we need to put
these new public services? Also, by conducting land use and enlisting information from
the community mapping process, you can correct certain wrongs in systems. So Cabira was originally
demarcated as a forest. This shows Sindali,
which is an area in Tanzania, but the principle stands the same. That communities can provide land use for which [INAUDIBLE] got wrong
by traditional systems and you can do it at a much finer level
than you were previously able to do. Now just taking a wider perspective,
this is the bus network and transportation network in Dar
es Salaam in Tanzania and what you’re seeing here in
the center of the image is the bus rocket transit system in yellow,
which is dedicated lanes and fast buses which move people
around the cities a lot quicker. It’s a project from the city council
of Dar es Salaam and the World Bank. In black, you have the informal
bus network of dala dalas. And by using this map, you can understand
where the dala dalas are at the moment and where the BRT is going to be and
this is really important, because the BRT system will displace and
it will disrupt the transportation system that
exists currently in Dar es Salaam. It will make it more efficient. However, the buses that are in there at
the moment will need to go somewhere else and that transport network will evolve. And at the moment,
this provides us an opportunity for understanding how it will evolve and
it will allow us to pose those questions. And it provides the opportunity for
joint road maps, potentially time tabling. Creating smarter applications for
routing citizens across cities and this is something that was
never really done before. When this process was conducted by
people sitting on buses with GPS’s, it was not done by an extensive survey. And by presenting this information
to the City Counselor Dar es Salaam, they’ve been able to get valuable insight
into their own transportation network, which they’ve never had previously. They’ve never seen a picture of
what their bus network looks like. By seeing this,
they’ve been able to engage. And frankly, one of things that we
found is that governments generally have a low capacity on engaging
with information like this. And when you start to show
them information like this, they want to engage, and
they want to get up to speed rapidly, because they realize the alternative
is no data and that really provides us an opportunity to really innovate
around public services and drivers data through government systems and we
can start to look at data harmonization. So while we’re looking at how
one dataset links with another, we can also conduct data
harmonization exercises. So here we’re seeing in Tenali, a picture of the buildings that
were released by the city council. This was released by the city council
Because they saw the value of the community mapping data that
was collected in Dar es Salaam and they actually use that now
within their own systems. However, they’ve started to
release their own data and wanted to share it so
we can ultimately build a better map. There’s also the opportunity
to look at how flooding and other disasters can pose massive problems
and challenges for informal communities. Now with community mapping,
we already know the water isn’t draining. We can use community mapping as
a tool to ask, why isn’t it draining? Where are the drains, where
are the culverts, where are the pipes? Where are they blocked? Pinpoint this and
elicit that genuine community information. Has the infrastructure been stolen? What needs to happen and how can that information be
communicated to service providers? By the communities that identify
in this vulnerable infrastructure, it can drive change in these communities
because there are feedback loops between the communities, and
the service providers themselves. And really what I’m driving
at is taking a holistic approach to understanding this ecosystem. One act, whether it’s the private sector,
academia, civil society or government. Isn’t going to solve the issues that we
face it’s going to require a holistic approach and
information sharing between these groups.>>Ultimately this creates
positive feedback mechanisms. It requires us to ask questions,
focus on problems and rapidly prototype iterative solutions. Yeah we’ve got to understand
that one iteration in this is never going to be enough. You need to constantly learn and
constantly evolve and evaluate. And then change our methods. And this includes data collection, it
includes presenting this to stake holders, that there are always ways to improve. And by doing this we can actually
draw better positive feedback loops. This is a quote by
the Chief Digital Officer of the UK. And it’s, in an analog world,
policy dictates delivery. In a digital world,
delivery informs policy. And here, feedback loops are instant. Governments and public services
need the ability to respond. And the challenge of
improving this information is really about culture and reform. Governments do need to change and
that will be an issue, it will not be an easy process. By shifting their culture
of policy evaluation, we can get quicker responses for,
and feedback within these networks. And it allows further questions for
us that we need to answer. Not here, but going on forward, of how we can better enable governments to
receive this information, to act on it. And do something about
it in this digital age. Now at this point,
I would like to introduce my friend and colleague, a community mapper. And, graduate of the university school
of urban and regional planning, in urban and regional planning. So thank you very much. I pass you over to Senecali.>>Thank you, Mark.>>Thank you. Okay, as I’ve been introduced by Mark,
I want to go straight and take you through Tandale
project marketing. And basically, I would like to tell
you while we do the Tandale mapping. Mainly we intended to give
the Tandale community the opportunity to speak
about their issues and their thoughts to different outsiders
who didn’t know the community. And another aim of Tandale Mapping is to make the community know this
methodology, how to use the equipment, how to do the mapping, like,
mapping and the importance of that. We can be able to tell,
you know, outsiders about their. And also,
if we give the community the power of learning the methodology of how
[INAUDIBLE] mapping and reporting. It would be easy if we
have [INAUDIBLE] work. This system works,
to make them be able to do the updating. Because they. Old methodology of how to do
the mapping there to be easier for the [INAUDIBLE] control, and the community
being able to change whenever. This is something that
changed in their community. And so I want to show you the video that
shows one of the examples of the issues that have been identified in Tandale
using the Tandale mapping process. [INAUDIBLE]>>So, we find that the people, they are
trying harder to find where they can play. And people also, they are trying where,
I mean to throw their lunches. That’s why [INAUDIBLE] this
area is already [INAUDIBLE]. And just when the kids are just put there,
laying down here. [INAUDIBLE] The problem
is very big cuz we don’t know what the kind of
workmanship they’re showing. Maybe there are needles inside there and [INAUDIBLE] [FOREIGN]. So the area there is a need
improving this area. So by putting the containers for the kids to play, and also the>>[COUGH] Okay to explain what. Okay, to explain what already
Jennifer has been explaining is that internally we have one issue
that is no open for kids to play. We have only one open space
which is in the school, it’s like playground for the school. So keep that always, lot of places of
go and play and for they are the kids. But then these open spaces are mostly,
open spaces in Tandale. Whereby it’s not used as open spaces. It’s been used to store
rubbish outside there so. This leads to a case to not playing to
because they always need open spaces to play. Then they always go there and
play on the playground. And so if we switch them to, it’s not
safe for them to play there as a kid. And as they can get afflictions and
like diseases. And maybe because it’s slobbish. And it’s easier for them to get injured. Okay, I want to take you through
the Tandale Projects and generally that in the Tandale Project, the main stakeholders was the World Bank
who funded the project, and they managed to, through the prop funds
they managed to have the mapping going on. And another [INAUDIBLE] university
who provided the students and so we were able to get 20 students from
[INAUDIBLE] university who were so close and to the community, streaming
them and training them how to choose technology and how to be a marketing
executive on the ground. Another we had in CCI. This is the organization
that’s based in Tanzania. And they want to be
involved in the projects. And they have the community,
different community and they have the organization
learning within the community. So they thought it would be good for
the community to get involved so that for later time they capable
in the mapping and updating. Another that we had was
the community themself. These are the communities
that knows the areas well and the one who did the mapping. And so it could be easy for
them to work around the areas and do the mapping after they
know the methodology. And other condition we had,
[INAUDIBLE] initiative. This is the organization
based in Washington DC, and they are mainly coordinating
[INAUDIBLE] different organization like World Bank,
[INAUDIBLE] projects to be filled out. And we have another coder who
provided equipments, such as GPS, a laptop, and cameras for
the community to put them up. Generally, the Tandale is
divided into six servers. And we manage to, in one month,
to map in the area with 90 hectares and the mark everything within that area and that all is within the map. And so I want to take you through
the process of how we did it, the project, in general. What we want to do is
project the community. And tell them they [INAUDIBLE] having
the data from the ground into [INAUDIBLE]. And then, we train them through
the students from University. So close to the community and they train
them how to use equipment and how to do the mapping on the ground so that we
have the data in the open street map. Then we formed into some groups. This group was built in this
six sub-webs and then we, because we has 20 committee members and
20 students. Then we divide them equally and
we had one group comprised of six to seven members who were working
through different sub-webs doing the data collection and
technically starting to. Then we had data collection
where by the community everyday went to the field and
did data collection. And they marked, they’re taking data
from everything they thought was. So they are green mapping everyday and
then after that we always get back with the offices,
the office and do the editing and the wording that. And I’ll take you through a context that
you can use and that is very easy to do. And they’ll bring it, and
they’re uploading the data side steps. One of them is having device that can manage to take
spatial information, such as GPS. Or you maybe have a phone that
is taking coordinates, or you might have an iPod that is showing
the coordinates or degrees within the and you can be able to move into the field and
do the collections. Another step is to upload
that data into the computer. So when you have the data into your device
then you upload them into your computer so that you can get into the thick way you start editing the data you have by
imputing the attribute of the data. Say you have collected shops then
you just enter in the data like, who owns this shop?. What time does it open? And sort of [INAUDIBLE] then after
that you edit the data within the open street map editor before you upload
them into the open street map. This an example of Tandale
map before it was mapped. And you can see there’s nothing at all
there are just roads and a few footpaths. And a few buildings put them up
as [INAUDIBLE] as you can see. And [INAUDIBLE] the offices
that the [INAUDIBLE] using. Meetings and
all training was conducted in that office. And this is after one month,
we have mapped, you can see the community has managed
to mark everything in just one month. You can see these are the black,
small black points are the and like everything that [INAUDIBLE]
the community has managed to map. You can easily see. If you zoom in you can easily do
better analysis by identifying, for example, the red lines
are the pharmacies that are in Tandale and the big red lines are only one
hospital that exists in Tandale. So, you can easily know, we have only one
hoster, so if you want to this decision, maybe you can just do a better
decision by locating in a better way. And I wanna talk a little
bit about the blogging. The blogging, that’s where the community
talk of what is happening in Tandale. So they’re writing short stories
of what has been happening, if it’s the issue or
the problem happening, so it’s easy for them to talk and put some pictures,
and so you can see the issues. We have one example that the community
was, I have one example that the community posted one issue whereby that was broken
water drainage system with the dusts. Then after the servers seen the posts,
they went to the field and do data collection. So, not data. They went to the field and
do the the corrected the risks and so they managed to open the delay
system that was broken before. So the challenges that we are facing in doing the community mapping was
firstly insufficient equipments. And, as you know,
we had only six computers, and six GPS, and only one month now,
six modem and only one camera, that we managed,
we managed to use the available community, which was 20 community and
20 student to have this mapping going on. So, the cameras and computer and
GPS were not enough for the project during that time, and
so if you look to expand we needed more computers so
that the project would be good. Another challenge that we faced is
the technology literacy in Tandale. Most of the community
doesn’t know English and doesn’t know even computers so
we needed more time. And very slow, slow, so close to them to
train them how to use this equipment and how to use computer, how to use GPS and
how to use cameras so that they could manage to do the data collection and
get some pictures and recordings. Also, we have another challenge that We
only have a few outsiders who, you know, are waiting to come in and
help the community being served, because we have the map. We have the that already
we know are going to. So if we have, you know, more outsiders
that would come to serve those issues that the community is speaking out, it would
be, you know, useful to have them. And so what’s the next step? That’s what I’m thinking. One of them is to keep affiliates and
the community because we have community that want to do the mapping and
the pointing of what exists in Tendali. So we should keep facilitate them and
keep helping them if they have more questions on how to do
the mapping and sort of thing. Another next step that I’m thinking
of is to find more outsiders who will come to help with issues
from the community. Such as the government or the World Bank
or different organizations that can come and help these communities from
the posture of the issues. And another step is to find more funds
to do more mapping with the community, to map the city. And so we have everything mapped
in the organization’s map. And from that,
I would like to thank you very much. Yeah. Ask questions.>>Thank you. I’ve seen several questions online,
so I think maybe I summarize some of the ones we already saw very
quickly as we don’t have much time. One of them I can take myself. There was a question about
what was the budget. As most of my colleagues explained, MINT Hep has 71,000 people
within about a month. The budget paid by the World Bank was for
facilitation services to Grand Truth, $30,000 for most of the project
financed by the World Bank. But this did not include
equipment contributions, I’m told, is at around $17,000. The numbers are not exact but
it’s less than $50,000 EFTS. And the whole planning, logistics, the
mapping, and the data within three months, the actual time in
the field was four weeks. There’s some questions from Mark. Mark, there was a question on
what incentives did you use for the community to engage or contribute? And maybe Mr.
Icully you want to add to that? I’ll give you two or three questions, another question
on whether the communities have to have Internet access, a question on
whether the data could be misrepresented? And other cases of people
entering false information. So we’ll start with these three questions. Mark, you want to-
>>Yes, I can.>>[CROSSTALK] incentives.>>So the incentives for
the individual mappers. By engaging in it was a joint project with taking
students and community members. Community members were
provided with a small stipend to cover transportation
costs as well as students. And for students there was a great novice
transfer where they have been able to use the skills that were garnered and
gained in community mapping elsewhere.>>Other then that [INAUDIBLE]. One of, you know, the, the the community
feels that if they post and do the marking and express their, their issues, they would think that
once somebody come to solve the issues, that’s, that’s what they think it would,
that’s why they keep doing it. And, for now they keep marking and
reporting so they feel that, if somebody come in and
some of the issues that they are putting.>>So, community members are not
being paid for contributing data.>>Originally with the initial
mapping effort in they were paid a very small stipend. Now, if any audits are taking place,
they are completely free to do so. And they are not incentivized in any way.>>Some of the other questions, this
from Helena again, who are the users of the map and decision makers that
are being served by this process? I think that goes to both of you.>>Shall I go with
the Internet [INAUDIBLE] data? [INAUDIBLE].>>Certainly. I remember when I first
started working in this area. Internet access was, frankly,
a rather large issue. Not just in terms of connectivity but
in terms of cost as well. Costs have come rapidly down and
connection has gone rapidly up. To actually upload to a constrict map,
there is a need for Internet access, for access to the data,
if you wish to do it through OpenStreamMap obviously you will
need to have access to the Internet but there are applications for your smartphone
that you could use to download the data. However, one of the key things that
was conducted was printing of maps. And these could be handed to civil
officers, they could be handled to a local government, community leaders and
that provided something tangible that could be used offline as it’s paper in
any way possible and that was done free.>>Yeah and
maybe to other on the Internet. Then when we posited the [INAUDIBLE],
we have this issue, a very major issue that the community
wanted to [INAUDIBLE] issues, but they didn’t have the money for Internet. So we sat together with the community, and the community [INAUDIBLE]
discussed this issue. And they came up with the solution that
>>And in [INAUDIBLE] we have this service bundle, where by the community are buying,
subscribing in bundles in the [INAUDIBLE]. And they get 100 [INAUDIBLE] and [INAUDIBLE] defense on
the [INAUDIBLE] service. So the community outreach
subscribing with this bundles. And [INAUDIBLE] getting [INAUDIBLE]
of which [INAUDIBLE] don’t use the Internet bundles. So they came up with a solution that
they should be using with bundles and because they have equipment
like one computer and more than that you can put the chips and
connect to the Internet. Then they always use the chips, chip tool to put them into a modern to
connect the Internet for their own.>>And
to cover a misrepresentation of data I think that you can break
that down into two components. One being malicious misrepresentation of
data and the other being common mistakes. Now I have not experienced within
the community mapping projects that I’ve worked with
misrepresentation of data. That isn’t to preclude
it from happening but I think that the nature
of it involves people. It makes people want to participate. It’s not something that
people want to go and break what they’ve been
ultimately working towards. I know within OpenStreetMap there have
been cases of malicious data entry. However, it’s a strong and vibrant community which identifies
these issues and makes it cleaner. It’s much stronger in practically
all areas of the world from the authoritative data sources. It provides not just a better accuracy but
also better information on themes, bus routes boundaries, and
I really think that misrepresentation of data is a fear which is necessarily
substantiated on closer inspection. And, with the second point on
the misrepresentation of data of unintentional error. Things have come a long way. The tools to, in community mapping,
are a lot more usable now. Previously there wasn’t a structure for
editing. There’s more help, there’s more guides. There’s better editors. The ID editor from
Matbox was the recipient of the Foundation Development Grant. And it was half a million dollars,
specifically, to support a more usable editor. And you can see that international
organizations are engaging around open street mart to make the process of more
sustainable to localize the tools and local languages. And that really enables people to do
things in the way that they see fit and help them through that process.>>Yeah, adding on that, actually I have
an example with [INAUDIBLE] project, because they are done in groups, and so
[INAUDIBLE], we don’t want [INAUDIBLE]. So whenever we see
somebody putting the wrong information into the [INAUDIBLE], so they always [INAUDIBLE] to bring to exact.>>Okay, great. I’ll try to move quickly, maybe I’ll
take two more questions just for Mark and then Mr. Icully. Mark, some questions,
from Ario, is the approach for developed or developing countries? Better frames and
maybe talk about first steps. Another question is does the mapping
kind of record at the facility that you’re mapping functional or
functional? And how long does it take to train
a group of mapper facilitator?>>So
the first question on whether it’s for developed or developing countries,
I believe it’s truly for the world. So developed or developing
countries I don’t think matters, I think there are different sensibilities
you need to use with each use case. But, it’s not the only factor
that you need to consider. There are mapping parties in London,
where I’m from in the North of England. But also France, Italy,
Tokyo, Ghana, Nairobi. This truly is a global phenomenon. And what you’re seeing is that, when people start releasing
[INAUDIBLE] this goes normal. The data comes back clean. I apologize to the direct. But I see a question on data on government
and how they influence decision making. The British government released their bus
stops to the commons to the crowd and from that the public and
mappers around the world were able to look at those and
correct the errors they found and oversights of data in the official
data of the British government and then they were then able to
take that back and reuse it.>>Just facilitate that
they are functional.>>Functional. The taxonomy within OpenStreetMap
is readily extendable. You can include functionality if you wish,
and that is very much the responsibility
of the individual mapper. However, it doesn’t have to
be collected all at once. You can collect the position of
the attribute you’re collecting and then at another stage go and
investigate the functionality. You can build on what you’ve created. [INAUDIBLE] Personally, I worked on [INAUDIBLE]
projects that have gone on for months. The shortest one that I worked on was the
[INAUDIBLE] project, which was four weeks. And, and it was hectic, and
brilliant, and equal measure. And, you can really start to engage with people and get them trained up and
knowledgeable of the talks. One of the things to consider when
doing this is literacy of technology. Sometimes you can go a lot further, but you need to bring along people in
the community with what you’re doing. So some of that time is actually
not talking about mapping. It’s talking about engaging with tools
like phones, GPS, and those tools.>>And yeah. Adding on the whole line, and
then taking an example like Tandale. Because we didn’t know anything, didn’t know anything [INAUDIBLE] say GPS. And in the first week,
it was also intense. So we need to give
introduction to everything. But then, from the first week into
getting into the second week it was more sort of easy, so that the community
could start catching up and knowing what to do and [INAUDIBLE]. So in the third week, it was everything,
all coming to know how to do the.>>I’m told that we are out of time. Plenty questions, so
thank you for the interest. The presentations will be available
in 24 hours with the video. And thank you for attending. And thank you to our speakers, Mark and.>>Thank you very much.

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