Freud’s psychosexual development | Individuals and Society | MCAT | Khan Academy

Freud’s psychosexual development | Individuals and Society | MCAT | Khan Academy


Voiceover: Alright, let’s dive right
in to our first area of development, and we’re gonna take a look at Freud’s
Psychosexual Theory of Development. So here’s Freud over here, and he proposed
that psychological development in childhood takes places in a series of
fixed stages called psychosexual stages. And he believed that life was built around
this concept of tension and pleasure, in that the buildup of tension could cause
a lot of conflicts. So this tension buildup or fixation was
due to this concept of libido. Now, libido is a natural energy source
that fuels the mechanisms of the mind. And when this libidinal energy is stuck or
fixated as we like to call it in this theory that’s a term you should get familiar with
whenever you hear the psychosexual theory of
development so fixation. So when fixation occurs, it can have a
lifelong effect well into adulthood. Cuz remember, Freud, Freud’s theory
stressed the importance of personality development
at childhood. So if a certain stage, if fixation
occurred in a certain stage in this childhood, it could have a lasting
effect well into adulthood. So each of these stages is associated with
a particular conflict that has to be resolved in order for the person to
successfully advance to the next stage. So Freud again, stressed that the first
five years of life are crucial to the formation of
adult personality. Now this idea of libido and fixation is
centered around different areas of the body at different stages of growth, which is why he calls it a psychosexual
development. So, you can remember the order of these
stages by using this neumonic that I came up with
and it’s called. I’ll just run through it. It’s Old, Age, Parrots, Love,. Love. Grapes. Oops. Let’s give ourselves a little bit more
room over here. There we go. Okay, so old age parrots love grapes, and
that’s associated with each of the stages. So the OId stands for the oral stage. The Age stands for the anal stage. The P stands for the phallic stage. The L stands for the latent stage or the latent period. And lastly grapes stands for the genital stage. So old age parrots love grapes. Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital. Now, I was talking about how this fixation
of libido is focused on different parts of the body, so
depending on what stage we’re at, there is going to be a certain fixation of this
energy at a certain body part. So, when it comes to let’s pick a
different color, okay. So when it comes to oral, the part of the body that the libido is focused on is the
mouth. Oral for mouth. The anal stage is anus, pretty self
explanatory. The phallic stage is the genitals. And I’ll go through and explain all this
in a bit. The latent actually doesn’t have anything. And the genital last stage is again the
genitals. Alright so let’s go through the stages. So the first stage, the oral stage, I’m
going to try to pick a different color again
here. Okay, so the oral stage is the
first stage of personality development. And it occurs between the ages of 0 to 1
years of age. So, there we go. And this is when the libido is centered
around the baby’s mouth. So the infant’s primary source of
interaction occurs through their mouth. Through the rooting and sucking reflex. And obviously the mouth is vital for
eating. And the infant derives his or her pleasure
from oral stimulation through activities such
as tasting and sucking. And because the infant is completely
dependent on their parents, their caretakers who are
responsible for feeding the child, the baby also develops this sense of trust and comfort
through this oral simulation. So, we can talk about the major
development over here as feeding. Now if there’s a fixation or conflict that
occurs here, through the weaning process. So the baby. Has to learn to wean off in order to
advance to the next stage, so if there’s a conflict in this process, the child becomes less dependent upon the
caretaker. And Freud believed that an individual with
fixation at this stage could develop issues with
dependency or aggression. So later in adulthood, we see an oral type of personality in people that smoke. Or bite their fingers. Or their nails, or that suck their thumb. So the adult fixation personalities or
examples are of people that smoke. Or bite their nails, or people that, over
eat. Alright, moving on to the second stage. The second stage is the anal stage and
that occurs between the years of 1 to 3. And Freud believed that the primary focus
here was centered around the anus. And in controlling the bladder and bowel
movements. So, we can consider this trip, toilet
training. So when the child gets older and starts to
wean off from feeding in the oral stage, it’s going to
start getting potty trained. So the major conflict at this stage is
toilet training, where the child has to learn how to control his or hear
bodily needs, and this leads to developing a sense of control and accomplishment, and independence, so
parents who utilize praise and rewards for the child using the toilet are encouraging positive
outcomes. And helping the child feel capable and
productive. And Freud believed that positive
experiences in this anal stage can help serve as the basis for people to feel competent
and productive and creative adults. However, not all parents take an
encouraging approach to potty training, so if any fixation occurs in this stage,
that can lead to problems as and adult. And Freud said that adults, Who have
fixation at this stage could possibly have problems with
orderliness and messiness, so these are attributes of the adult fixation. Moving on to the third stage. Stage the phallic stage. So this occurs between 3 and 6 years of
age, and its focus the genital area is the focus of
the libido. So at this age, children are beginning to
discover the difference between the males and females and here Freud came up
with two important terms. So he believed that boys actually begin to
view their fathers as a rival for their mother’s
affections and he called this the Oedipus complex which describes
the feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to
replace the father. This is what little boys, go through. And the same thing occurs. For females towards, or young girls,
towards their fathers which he termed the Electra
Complex. So that’s the major development here is
being able to resolve this Oedipus and Electra Complexes. And usually this is resolved through the
process of identification, where the child starts to understand and develop similar
characteristics of their same-sex parents. So they’ll look up to fathers. Little boys will look up to their fathers,
and little girls up to their mothers. However, if there’s a fixation at this
stage that can transform into adulthood and cause sexual dysfunction if
this is isn’t resolved. The fourth stage is the latent period. So this is usually between 6 to 12 years
of age and there’s really no focus of libido
over here and this is a period in which 12 being puberty
so 6 to puberty so this is the time of
exploration in which the sexual energy, this libido, is
still present but it’s not really focused on one
area. It’s being directed into. It’s not focused on one area of the body
rather, it’s starting to be directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social
interactions. And children developing new skills. So this stage is really important in the development of social and communication
skills. So, you can say the socialism aspect and
the development of new skills. So this begins around the time that
children enter school, and so they become more concerned with the peer relationships, hobbies, and other
interests. And, play between children, starts to
become largely confined to children of the same gender. And, any fixation at this point doesn’t
really develop into an adult fixation. And the last stage is the genital stage
which occurs from the age of 12 and above. So here again, the focus is back on the
libido. And that’s because the individual starts
developing strong sexual interests. So there starting to reach sexual
maturity. And during this stage they develop the
sexual maturity towards the opposite sex that lasts well
into their life. Well through life till, till death. So in early stages the focus was solely on
individual needs but in this stage their interest in the
welfare of others so. If all stages were successfully completed
then the person should be sexually matured and
mentally healthy. So, the adult fixation example is, since
this is the last step there really isn’t any adult fixation
because it’s under the assumption that all these other stages
were completed successfully so we can just say the person is mentally healthy
that’s what Freud said. So if all the other stages have been
completed successfully the individual should now be well
balanced, warm and caring. So the goal of this stage, the genital
stage, is to establish a balance between the
various life areas. So this is Freud’s theory of psychosexual
development in a nutshell.

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    Sgt. Amazing Name

    Psycho sexual stages shouldn't be taken too seriously. They're not recognised as scientific. 

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    Jessica Vivian

    Pretty awesome chart. I'm in my junior year of psych and although I've read the material, this presentation really helped to make the connections click. I love the colors and simple process of explanation. Keep them coming !

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    GRiMHOLD

    Absolute drivel.
    I suffer from mental problems and none of this crap applies to me.
    Nor does it apply to the people who i know that have what i have.

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    Tasha Naude

    GRiMHOLD – this was the start and or exploring development. Freud also helps us understand that we have an unconscious. These were the first PPP to present this kind if though. That is why the best form of therapyo I have Bipolar 2.

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    Frankie

    Anytime they teach Freud's psychosexual theory, they should start with a disclaimer that says "This is a lesson in history, not practicality".

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    @_HO_RUs

    Cocaine hydrochloride is one hell of a drug. How Freud came up with this nonsense, and it's accepted as "psychology" is hilarious. I'm convinced more than ever now that this kind of psychology is a pseudoscience.

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    keachia Eden

    I don't believe it had anything to do with homosexuality, it is base on children pairing off with the same-sex. For instance, girls played with girls and guys played with guys. They're just having the same-sex friendship, see nothing to worry about you are, perfectly straight.

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    monika Rivera

    what program did you use to create this video with the black background? I need to do a presentation and love this!!!
    Please help 🙂

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    saba agniashvili

    I have to admit, as a partial Darwinist (not a homophobe) i have found a proof that same sex family mey be harmful for a child, AGAIN! Which means that their adopted kid, will not be able to properly mature because of that. No wonder humanity starts going to shit

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    Sathvik Sripad

    I have recently studied this theory in psychology class. I believe its definitely true and the logic very well holds true with respect to the various adult fixations thats so conspicuous to us in our everyday surroundings.
    Some suggestions- In the oral stage, i believe the parents should never totally stop their child from sucking the thumb as its a really important stage which can affect the future behavioural characteristics of the child. Every parent must be educated on the psycho sexual stages of development so that they are well aware of their child's behaviour and address them well enough. Anal stage must definitely be catered to as it shapes the person's personality in the future. The rest of the stages are very normal and little can be done about them

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    Sam. X.

    The irrelevant words help you remember? that should say something about your understanding of this and way more than that lol

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    gorgoron sword

    Wtf was this head trip that people call science? Seriously, was Freud on drugs or something? Why was he so obsessed with sex?

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    Nick Martin

    UM UM UM UM AH UM UM UM AH UM UM COULD YOU WRITE A BLOODY TRANSCRIPT BEFORE HAND NEXT TIME? MAYBE GIVE IT A PRACTICE GO BEFORE YOU PUBLISH. Coursera.org>Khan Academy, ime all of Kahns videos aremjust as bad.

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    julian valencia

    How was he a fraud? He wasn't right about everything (like most
    intellects who have changed the world with their findings and ideas.
    Most intellects weren't right about everything and have been disproved
    later in history but their findings still let to the discovery of other
    things, to say they were frauds is disrespectful and unnecessary, it's
    like saying Aristotle was a fraud because he supported the 4th element
    theory and added a 5th element him self ). The only thing that I would
    change from Freud's theory is: a male can have more feminine energy
    than a female and a female can have more masculine energy than a male;
    we are all a mix of both masculine and feminine energy, therefore
    homosexuality is not so much about hormones or physical conditions but a
    result of unbalanced sexual energies which aren't necessarily right or
    wrong, just a matter of exposure(if a boy is raised by only women and
    there are no men around for him to model) in the development stages.

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    Lea & Mike

    I think Freud had a fucking fixation that seems unhealthy to me. Seriously, why do we have to learn this for the MCAT? Isn't this theory fairly discredited anyways..

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    Eric Crawford

    Victorian era? Women didn't matter. Freud's research would be considered illegal abuse now. This is shit.

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    Rachel Daisy

    i have never been more confused..
    why is the process of eating and chewing in a baby connected to libido? where is the sexual connection? someone help me out here please?

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    IsaacDarcheMusic

    How the hell do you need a mnemonic device to remember oral anal etc? That's like forgetting the name of a blow job.

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    james ian

    this is an abridged version of Freud's libido Theory. Libido focuses on friends during the latent period Homosexuality is the fixation at the latent period. Why this is so commonly distorted ? Its obvious !

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    MOHAMMED AFRID 14BIT0104

    I believe its definitely true and the logic very well holds true with respect to the various adult fixations thats so conspicuous to us in our everyday surroundings.
    Some suggestions- In the oral stage, i believe the parents should never totally stop their child from sucking the thumb as its a really important stage which can affect the future behavioural characteristics of the child.
    Every parent must be educated on the psycho sexual stages of development so that they are well aware of their child's behaviour and address them well enough.
    Anal stage must definitely be catered to as it shapes the person's personality in the future.
    The rest of the stages are very normal and little can be done about them
    (14BIT0104, Mohammed Afrid , slot-F1)

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    Marisa Wilkins

    So out of curiosity, what do you think Freud’s theory would have been on attraction to the same sex? Would he conclude that a child was deprived of one of the stages? Also, when the child tries to take the place of their parent of the same sex, what if the child has same sex parents? If the child is male, does he take the place of the more masculine partner? Or what if the child is male however also gay, does he take the place of the mother instead of the father or has the sexual orientation not been determined yet?

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    Tamyra

    Cool theory but you lost me at "sexual dysfunction" and "sexually mature and mentally unhealthy" So… To confront the elephant in the room it feels like a shot at the LGBT community. I don't know why people feel the need to walk around topics like this and make a someone else's preference seen inappropriate or unhealthy. I get where the chart is going, makes a lot of sense, it's science but use better words, please. Don't dance around the subject people are different, not because they idolized either their mom or dad based on their gender and they're definitely not in your words "mentally unhealthy" because of it. It's not a big deal its just a little pet peeve of mine. I know it wasn't meant to be disrespectful, I'm just throwing my opinion out there.

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    heavenlymxss

    I’m not usually one to complain, but how are they still teaching this in public schools, in the 21st century? I’m probably overreacting, but this theory is beyond offensive… When you say “opposite-sex,” how exactly are the LGBT kids supposed to feel? Some are easier manipulated than others, so when going through the stages, talking about how if they are ‘successful,’ then you should go through all this, that’s behind insensitive, and extremely unhealthy. Healthy is accepting yourself, and happiness- not homophobia and hatred. I’m just baffled by the knowledge of some people. And don’t give me that “homosexuality was illegal then,” bullshit, pay close attention to the word “THEN,” the rules are changed, being gay is okay in most of America at this point, yet teachers are STILL teaching it like this..

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    Madison Sido

    I hate that we have to memorize this stuff for the MCAT, psyc classes etc. Freud was discredited a long time ago, its such useless information.

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    Madison Sido

    I have to assume "Socialism skills" was a slip-up on the speakers part. Unless 6-12 is when children learn to redistribute wealth.

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    the MadHater

    HAHAHA this tutorial gives me a guffaw! The mnenomic is so funny and harder to memorize than just going by the names Freud gave his stages.

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    Graham B

    The Latency stage plays a huge roll in a lot of adults lives. I'm just trying to figure out what the connection is

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    Rosco P. Coltrane

    Frued was a fraud. He is nothing but an anti-Gentile. It was a Jewish strategy to pathologize the behaviors of Gentiles. This was designed to debase Gentile society so it can be controlled.

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    cfcreative

    Sometimes life feels like you can either hammer a nail in or you can gen an engineering degree and build a robot to hammer a nail in and then get rid of all the hammers.

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    Francisco Frankfield

    Thank you! I believe that psychoalysis is only for diagnosis, not for treatment. The problem is who scores first, not the relationship quality. You are forgetting that the time parameter is present in all our life, it's a kind of cultural illness. The overvaluation of time sometimes is that we go crazy. That's because we are involved into a competition dynamic instead cooperation.

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    jne K

    What kind of sexual dysfunction and how does problems with oedipus development lead to such dysfunction?

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    Udisa Das

    I didnt quite understand what you meant by tension and fixation. I mean what is the tension due to? what is meant by fixation? Please if anyone could help. Thank you.

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    Murphyy yy

    During the Phallic stage, what if the Child have no either Father or Mother? (Ex. Either the Mother or the Father died) What will happen to those complex?

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