Mongols: Civil Wars and Conquest of China – Battle of Yamen 1279 DOCUMENTARY


This video is sponsored, by the great courses plus, go to the great courses plus calm to start your free trial today The battle of Ain Jalut fought in 1260 marked the apogee of the mongol empire The spirit of conquest, was still strong within the mongols but it would be spent on their civil wars which happened due to dynastic spats and differences in faith The mongols continued to dominate, asia for the next century but Their internal conflicts would eventually stop the growth of their realm and then shatter it The great khan Mun Ker died in 1259 while campaigning against the Song His youngest, brother Ariq was in the capitol Karakoram, while Kublai and hulagu, were campaigning Instead of returning home Kublai decided to finish his fight against the song Ariq declared himself the great khan, with the support of the noble houses, who saw. Kublai as too, soft because of his buddhist beliefs Upon learning this Kublai declared himself khan, and marched against his brother starting a civil war Meanwhile to the west the muslim leader of the golden horde burqa, wasn’t going to forgive the sacking of baghdad he used the fact that Hulagu, was on his way to china to start raiding the territories of the Illkanate the territory of the house of chagatai Separated the two civil wars within the mongol empire but it would be used as a political chip in the conflict The empire was now divided into five parts The war between Ariq and Kublai, is known as the Toluid civil war We know very little about this conflict but it started in 1260 and lasted for four years During this war Kublai made the crucial decision to leave southern, China and focus on the north While the song were retaking some of their lost territories with nearly no resistance Ariq attacks the western Xia territories but, was repelled Kublai, then advanced on Karakoram, which, was left abandoned and raised it to the ground at the same time both Ariq and Kublai attempted to place their candidates on the throne of the Chagatai Khanate Ariq intercepted Kublai’s nominee and assassinated him Chagatai’s grandson Alghu, was made the khan However when Ariq’s situation deteriorated Alghu declined to help him in the war. And even killed his, envoy Kublai failed to use that to his advantage as he had to pull back his forces to parts of china, which were an open rebellion This allowed Ariq to go, to war against, Alghu, and while he, did win this conflict over the Chagatai Khanate he did so with heavy casualties As a result many of his allies deserted him including his, own son who stole the seal of the great khan And delivered it to Kublai Left with, no supporters or supplies Ariq travelled to Xiangdu alone and personally surrendered himself to his brother Kublai, became the new great khan Apart from bringing discord to the empire this civil war pushed Kublai, towards an even stronger affiliation with the Chinese troops bureaucrats and population Meanwhile Hulagu, and Berke were fighting, along their borders in the Caucuses and Khorasan Hulagu, returned to the area in 1262 In the same, year his son Abaqa moved into the Golden Horde’s territory, via central Asia, who had suffered a defeat Emboldened Berke’s army supported, by Ariq counter-attacks but lost decisively somewhere to the east of the Caspian, sea Hulagu, then decided to use the route taken. By Subatai, and moved into the Hord’s territory, using the pass of Durban Initially this campaign looks promising and the enemy retreated under the pressure Hulagu, sent a portion of his force led. By, his son to pursue the foe They, came upon a deserted but world provisioned camp, and decided to rest and feast This, however was a trap and they were surprised, by the main force of the Golden Horde After heavy fighting the Illkanate’s troops began to retreat over the frozen Terek river But the ice cracked under the weight of men and horses and many drowned in the freezing water Hulagu, was forced to retreat to the south and Berke regained much of his lost territory Neither side had enough strength to continue the war and when Ariq surrendered to Kublai the Golden Horde Also, accepted his authority in 1265 Hulagu passed, away followed by Berke in 1266 that ended the hostilities But still the mongol empire was broken and the legacy of Genghis, was represented. By four different states With the civil wars over Kublai Khan, worked tirelessly to transform the Mongol Empire into the Yuan Dynasty The capital, was moved to a city. Called Khanbaliq or Dadu which would later become Beijing In 1271 Kublai declared himself emperor he and his descendants slowly became more Chinese than Mongol he built over 20,000 public schools was a patron of the arts and Constantly met with people from all around the world including Marco Polo The emperor issued incorruptible paper bills backed, by silver Which were accepted across the entire Mongol Empire something unheard of until then Kublai, transformed the vast network of 1,400 postal stations to work as trading outposts as, well opening. China to the world like never before This, spread ideas Gunpowder other inventions and unfortunately the black death he created a highly efficient centralised government, and transformed the army Gone were the days of the horde his army now consisted of a small corps of Mongol warriors and a massive number of Chinese troops Kublai, decided to take on the Song, again, but he knew, that he had to adopt new strategies Song, china, had no hope of stopping the Mongols in open battle but. They, had some of the best fortresses of their time The best of those, was the one in Xiangyang, which had supplies for years and had tall doubled walls Kublai, knew that in order to fulfill his grandfather’s vision of conquering, China, he had to evolve his army 5000 Yuan ships were built and crews of experienced north Chinese and Korean sailors were recruited with The purpose of taking the rivers of China, and blocking enemy supplies This, new navy came with 70,000 trained marines and was a testament to how adaptable the Mongols were The siege of Xiangyang went on for six years as it held the most valuable position in China, and it’s defenders knew that if the city Fell the whole of China, would follow Multiple attempts were made by the Song to break out from or reinforce the city, but they didn’t stand a chance what finally, broke the fortress was a new design of counterweights trebuchet that Was able to fire 300 kilogram stones from a distance of 500 meters Xiangyang, which had held out for years fell in days in 1273 Kublai’s forces quickly swept through southern, china, and although their position was now Hopeless the song court raised, eight-year-old Zhao Bing to the throne The, Song sent emissaries to negotiate a peace but They, were rejected they ran from city to city seeking salvation and eventually boarded a huge fleet Kublai, moved his navy to attack the Song vessels and the decisive battle of this campaign happened at Yamen on March 19th 1279 The remainder of the Song fleet consisted of 1,000 ships but most of them were transports with a vast number of civilians on board Meanwhile Kublai’s fleet, had around 300 warships manned by 20,000 experienced marines and he Also, had the advantage of holding the nearby lands and supplies Some within the Song forces suggested that the navy should first claim the mouth of the bay to Secure their line of retreat to the west Their commander Zhang Shi Ji turned down this suggestion in order to prevent his soldiers from fleeing The, battle he ordered the burning of all palaces houses and forts on land for the same reason Next the entire fleet of 1,000 ships Was to be chained together forming one horizontal line with the emperor’s ship at the center this Was done to prevent desertion and to show that it was the last stand The battle started with the Yaun forces filling small, boats with combustible materials and sending them towards the Song formation The, Song anticipated, this movie and already painted, their ships with mud They, were also equipped with large poles that used to prevent the fire ships from coming to close The Yuan then blockaded the bay from either side And forced the chinese to each try food and drink river water for a few days There still was not enough to break their spirits Seeing as their enemy wouldn’t budge the Yuan divided their force into four units and began attacking From all sides on separate smaller fronts as The, Song ships were changed together they were sitting ducks unable to change formation and work together The Yuan hit them from the north when the tide, was low and from the south when it was high not allowing their main moment to rest Still the chinese fought bravely and inflicted heavy casualties on the mongols with, their arrows Suddenly these attacks stopped Festive music and laughter started coming from cooper’s ships Thinking that the Yuan were now distracted the Song warriors decided to rest However this music was a signal for a general attack The, whole Yuan navy, was sent into the center under the cover of arrow fire All the Song soldiers could, do from the flanks, was watch as their comrades were being slaughtered, by the thousands including civilians Seeing that all hope, was lost one of the Song emperor’s close advisors grabbed him and jumped into the water committing suicide Zhao Bing would be the last Song emperor China, was once again unified under the Yuan the first foreign dynasty to do so Although, the mongol realm was now shattered the story of Genghis’s descendants, was far from over When we create our videos we often use the series of lectures called the decisive battles of world history from professor Gregory Ou Reti provided By the sponsor of this video the Great Courses Plus This 36 part series covers the crucial battles of history Across all periods starting with the battle of Kadesh in the bronze age to Stalingrad during World War Two you can, subscribe to the Great Courses Plus to get access to the vast library of 10,000 lectures on history, science, literature and other subjects From the top-notch professors from the best universities in the world The Great Courses Plus, is giving viewers a great offer of a free trial show your support to our channel and learn more about the decisive battles of history by subscribing to the Great Courses Plus Through, the great courses plus.com forward slash kings and generals or the short link in the description Thank, you for watching the final episode in the first season on the history of the mongols We are considering making a second season covering the gradual fall of the mongol empire and the events in china Japan, India, the middle east, Russia and Europe but, we haven’t come to a decision yet We would like to express our gratitude to our patreon supporters, who, make the creation of our videos possible now you can Also, support us directly via youtube, by, pressing the sponsorship button, below, the video This, is the kings and generals channel and we will catch you on the next one

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