Self esteem, self efficacy, and locus of control | Individuals and Society | MCAT | Khan Academy

Self esteem, self efficacy, and locus of control | Individuals and Society | MCAT | Khan Academy


Voiceover: Hi everyone, welcome back. So in this video, we’re going to talk
about three terms. Self esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of
control. So self concept, as expanded upon in the
previous video of this series, is derived from self
esteem and self efficacy. So self-esteem is the regard or respect
that a person has for oneself. And self-efficacy is the belief in one’s
capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required
in certain situations. So in other words, self-efficacy is a
person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a
particular situation. And, self-efficacy was developed by
Bandura because of his dissatisfaction with the overall general
concept of self-esteem. So self-efficacy is much more specific
than self-esteem. Self-efficacy can have an impact on
everything from psychological states to behavior to
motivation. And virtually all people can identify
goals they want to accomplish, things they want to change,
things they want to achieve. However, most people also realize that
putting these plans into action is not so simple. So an individual’s self-efficacy plays a
major role in how goals, tasks, and challenges are
approached. And we can split self-efficacy up into two
two types. People with a strong sense of
self-efficacy versus people with a weak sense of
self-efficacy. So people with a strong sense of self-efficacy view challenging problem,
problems as tasks to be mastered, so I’m going to
write out the acronym RISE, R-I-S-E. So people with this strong self of sense
of self-efficacy also develop deeper interests and
activities in which they participate. They form a stronger sense of commitment
to their interests and activities. And they also recover quickly from
setbacks and disappointments. So there you have it. They can recover quickly. They have strong interests. They have a strong sense of commitment, and they enjoy problems or challenging
tasks. And then we have people with weak senses of self-efficacy and we’ll use the acronym
FALL. So people with a weak sense of
self-efficacy avoid challenging tasks. They believe that difficult tasks and
situations are beyond their capabilities. They focus on personal failings and
negative outcomes. And they quickly lose confidence in
personal abilities. So you have fail, avoid, lose, and lack. Now there are four major sources of
self-efficacy. So we look at these sources to determine
whether the person will have a strong or weak sense of
self efficacy. And the first is mastery of experiences. So that means performing a task successfully will strengthen our sense of
self-efficacy. Then there’s social modeling. So seeing people similar to ourselves successfully complete a task raises our
beliefs that, we, too, have the capabilities to master comparable activities, and also
succeed. The third source is social persuasion. So, think about a time when someone said
something positive and encouraging, that helped you
achieve a goal. Getting this verbal encouragement from
others helps people overcome self-doubt and focus on giving the best effort at the
task at hand. And the last source is psychological
responses. Consider a person who becomes extremely
nervous before speaking in public. They may develop a weak sense of
self-efficacy in this situation. But by learning how to minimize stress and
elevate mood when facing difficult or challenging tasks, we can improve their
sense of self-efficacy. Now here is the little catch. It’s important to remember that a person
with a low self-esteem can have a high sense of
self-efficacy and vice versa. So this is actually interesting. Perfectionists, you may know a couple, you
may be one yourself, have this mismatched. They have a low self esteem and possibly a
high sense of self-efficacy. And that’s because they tend to be overly
critical, and negative about themselves, and yet still see themselves
as quite capable in certain areas. For instance, a perfectionist might see
himself as uninteresting and unlikable, but see himself as a
competent architect. They’re often competent at tasks with
clear guidelines, but they feel a little
uncertain and lose a little confidence in situations
without these clear rules in things such as
relationships. Now let’s move on to our last term, locus
of control. Locus of control is the extent to which
people perceive they have control over events in
their lives. And there are two types, internal and
external locus of control. So internal locus of control is when a
person believes he or she can influence events
and their outcomes,. They attribute the results to their own
traits. And a person with an external locus of control blames outside forces for
everything. They attribute events to environmental
traits or causes. Individuals with a high internal locus of
control believe that events in their life come primarily from
their own actions. So, if a person with an internal locus of control does not perform as well as they
wanted to on a test, for example, they would
blame it on lack of preparedness on their own
part. And if they performed well on a test, then the outcome would be attributed to their
ability to study. Now using the same example, if a person
with a high external locus of control does poorly on a test, they may attribute this outcome to the difficulty of the test
questions. And if they perform well in a test, they
may think that the teacher was lenient, or
that they were lucky. Some external factor is why they performed
well. People with an internal locus of control
feel that they control their own destiny, rather than their fate being largely
determined by external forces. So they tend to be happier, less
depressed, and less stressed. Hopefully, this video was to clarify the
differences between self-esteem, self efficacy, and
locus of control.

Comments

  1. Post
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    Desmond Chong

    Just a thought – is it possible that someone with low self-esteem fit into both internal and external loci of control? ie performed bad in an exam and blamed themselves; performed well and attribute it to easy marking?

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    Shadi Pahlavi

    what about a delusional belief like i think i dont exit and i am just a 3 way opinion interaction between my step moms nephew and her sister this people r for ever in my head i feel they live in my head i know ther is no one in my head but this delusion has swallowed my whole mind i live in this lens how do i free myself ?

  7. Post
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    julie mcgrath

    Self-efficacy is a branch of self-esteem, along with self-respect, and self-image.  Living with a contradiction in your life, such as, I love my wife, I'm trying to sleep with another woman, will not effect your general self-efficacy but will damage your self-respect leading to a lowered self-esteem.  Self-esteem requires a feeling of competence and a feeling of worthiness.

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    Kyle Presting

    On Locus of control; It seems to me that people often attribute successes to their own prowess or failures to outside influence. What would you call that?

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    Sarah Sayyari

    what does the lack stand for in the FALL acronym? i'm assuming it is lack of commitment but that wasn't really made clear in the description…

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    Jacob Johnson

    I fluctuate between having high and low self esteem and efficacy throughout the week, it's exhausting.

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    roidroid

    Someone with an Internal Locus of Control. Wouldn't they needlessly blame themselves for things in their life that aren't in their control?

    This is what causes phobias & hyper-vigilance in people with PTSD. There's a part of their mind insisting that they can avoid what happened from happening again, if they just try hard enough, if they just control hard enough, if they just stay alert enough, be vigilant enough at all times. 🙁

  20. Post
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    Amy E

    An internal locus of control is a quality important to me in other people- I didn't realize till it was spelled out. Excuses are a detriment to growth of character and spirit.

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    ashwini ashu

    Being teacher is not matter but helping everyone to understand the concept through well explaination matters…
    Thank you Khan academy team.. best wishes.

  24. Post
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    Celso Henrique

    I have Internal locus of control, Average Self-steem and low Self Efficacy on my personal relationships. How can i fix that?! I dont really see any one around that i can relate to as a social model. I dont know, its like every one is doing ok but i get freaked and burn my chances… im telling you, the feeling is like geting inside a hungry lion cage… Now at least i know my issue is at self efficacy.. now how to fix it is not at the video

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    altar7

    Where can I find methods for going from External locus of control to internal?
    Has it been proven that it is possible to do that change? Or is that something that happens in childhood and structures you for life?
    If it is possible to change, that would mean that it is possible to re-motivate someone?

  28. Post
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    Curious InKilleen

    The acronym RISE helps you remember the STRONG category. STRONG is a member of that acronym. It should be RICE. C is for Commitment.

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