The Chinese Civil War | Animated History

The Chinese Civil War | Animated History


This video was made possible by Squarespace Whether you need a domain online store or website make it with Squarespace Today, we’ll be exploring how China transformed into a communist state Despite thousands of years of dynastic rule and as always we’ll need to wind back the clock to really understand how this process unfolded Throughout the 17th century and up until the 19th century the Ching dynasty Loosely reigned over China as it was plagued by regionalism and corruption to make matters worse European merchants arrived in China on mass during the 18th century these Westerners arriving were driven by fiscal interests and some would later say that it was the wave of Merchants, who would spell China’s near ruin? Meanwhile in Japan things were looking up after their decisive victory over the Chinese in the sino-japanese war In Richard Bernstein’s work. He writes this of the conflict Japan’s major goal was the possession of Korea and Manchuria The vast landmass is just across the sea that were stepping stones towards the even larger prize, which was China This defeat prompted cries for reform and after a series of failed revolts including the 1899 Boxer Rebellion the Qing government found itself in an even more precarious position by 1911 the government was fully overthrown in what was called the Wu Chun Revolution the leaders of this revolution selected the exiled Intellectual Sun yat-sen to be China’s first president in 1912 However, their territories were limited to southern China Meanwhile, the boy Emperor Puyi remained in power in the north. He was backed by General Yuan Shikai Who had the largest army in the region and therefore pretty much called the shots? Thus soon yot sent one XI Chi over to his side without bloodshed by offering him the presidency From there things didn’t exactly go as planned. You want imposed a military dictatorship and egg Sun yat-sen after he formed the opposing Kuomintang or KMT in 1916 yuan proclaimed himself emperor of China pretty much missing the point of the rebellion in Ireland He quickly lost much of his support and after his death China was once again balkanized in two regions under the control of local Warlords after yuan died soon yat-sen returned to China and at the helm of the nationalist Kuomintang party was able to take power and impose yet another military government in 1921 shortly after in 1923 They sealed cooperation with the Communist Party of China or CPC in exchange for assistance in ending regionalism The CPC had been founded in the wake of the may 4th movement which involved a series of student protests formed in opposition to the Chinese government’s Ineffective response to the Treaty of Versailles, which transferred what was formerly Chinese own land to the Japanese The may 4th movement popularized Marxism as a radical alternative to the Kuomintang really the only reason the CPC aligned itself with the KMT was so it could spread communism as it liberated each warlord state with the assistance of the much stronger KMT in 1925 soon yat-sen died leaving China in the hands of Chiang kai-shek who two years later initiated what was known as the white terror in response to a communist plot to overthrow him this resulted in the deaths of Thousands of members of the CPC in the aftermath communist leaders lead Lee Sung and Mao Zedong Began waging a guerrilla war against the Kuomintang While this was happening the soviet union who saw the CPC as their communist allies Directed it to take a more aggressive stance Against the Kuomintang as a result Lee Lisan ordered an offensive to be carried out against the Nationalists It was a disaster and led to his replacement by a group of Chinese intellectuals called d28 Bolsheviks with warlords still in control of numerous regions and the two major political factions of China in all-out war the Situation was looking worse than ever Seeing the turmoil unfold the shadow of Japan once again loomed over China in 1931 they sent roughly 45,000 men to occupy Chinese Manchuria with no troops to spare the Kuomintang was forced to concede without resistance Chiang now understood that he needed to defeat the CPC before China was fully invaded to this end Chang assembled the largest Kuomintang army yet And in 1934 encircled Mao’s guerrilla forces stationed in the mountains The climax of this episode was the long march which began when the CPC devised a near Suicidal plan to break through Shang’s encirclement and march over 6,000 miles to regroup in the north About half of the CPC’s forces were lost when crossing the Xiong river a decision which the 28 Bolsheviks shouldered Responsibility for in the wake of this debacle mount took control of the Communists By the time the remnants of the CPC reached their northern destination only 10 percent of them were still alive Prompting now to launch a massive recruitment effort Recognizing that if the Japanese invaded both day and the Kuomintang would be destroyed Mao sought to form yet another United Front Shang was vehemently opposed to the offer but his generals weren’t they took matters into their own hands taking Shang hostage and pressuring him to accept Mao’s offer Chiang eventually decided to accept and formed what was called the second United Front in 1937 when Japan did invade that year the Kuomintang proved unable to fully repulse the invaders something which worried the Chinese people and now capitalized on this discontent to recruit even more men to his cause Furthermore his forces did not engage those of Japan very frequently allowing the Kuomintang to bear the of the Japanese onslaught After Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945 The Kuomintang and CPC ended the second United Front It only took one year for the Chinese Civil War to rage on yet again the CPC was now armed with Leftover Japanese weapons and equipment had newfound support from the populace and faced a foe who suffered 3.2 million casualties Against the Japanese whereas the Communists lost approximately four hundred and forty thousand after a highly successful guerrilla campaign both Beijing and Nanking had fallen to the Communists with the capture of these two major cities It would not be long before Mao was victorious and the People’s Republic of China was established Chiang kai-shek and the defeated Kuomintang government went into exile in Taiwan in 1949 which to this day still has the official name of the Republic of China under Mao 30 year reign tens of millions of people starved even so it is still debated to this day whether Mao Contributed to China’s modernization or whether he delayed its development Either way the Chinese government still sees Mao as one of their founding fathers Now back to our sponsor recently Squarespace has made my life a lot easier this website building platform offers a wide array of Customizable design templates to get started with eight new ones have been released in this year alone from that point It’s intuitive interface and diverse toolkit allow virtually anyone to build a website You really don’t need to be computer savvy or an artist to do this stuff But should you have any questions the reliable customer support team is always there to provide answers With all of this in mind we highly recommend you use Squarespace for any website project Imaginable be it for school work or just for fun Check out Squarespace and register for a free trial using squarespace.com slash armchair historian It’s as easy as clicking the link in the description below and getting started when you’re ready to launch use the offer code arm-chair for a 10% discount on your first website or domain purchase Thanks for watching I’d like to thank the armchair historian team and my general staff on patreon right now We’re in the process of training new members of the armchair 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Also, be sure to check out our new video next Friday

Comments

  1. Post
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    The Armchair Historian

    Check out Squarespace for a free trial at https://www.squarespace.com/armchairhistorian and use the code 'ARMCHAIR' for 10% off your first purchase.

    Thanks for watching! Corrections should be posted below.

    1. "Repubic of China" instead of "Republic of China."
    2. At 7:05, "1937" should have been "1945-1949"

    Griff

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    MJN

    Man, the map in this video is complete garbage. And not only the map. So many false statements you called "facts". it's sad that this video still exists after so many people pointed it out. But sadly this seems to be common for your videos :/

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    西瓜汁

    一个八千多万成员的组织,读着德国人写的宣言,唱着法国人编的歌,对着俄国人设计的旗宣誓……后来把钱存到瑞士的银行,把老婆孩子送到美国加拿大澳大利亚……却对着他们统治下的老百姓说:我们决不搞西方那一套…… ​这是不是邪教组织?

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    Gillan Baclayon

    How to win a civil war

    Let the stronger army bare the brunt of a stronger foe

    Once they are recovering, zerg rush them

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    Acdragonrider Videos

    Today the Taiwanese government wants to undo all of Chiang Kai shek and the Guomindang’s accomplishments, values, ideals, legacy along with any connection it had with the mainland. Truly sad.

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    Nehco Oahnait

    China probably knows the capitalist game more than the Europeans yet we are still discussing why IS China communist in 2018/2019… This is China today: it has a fully functioning and marketized economy driven by supply and demand. Yeah it is a one party state, ruled by a so-called COMMUNIST party, but a COMMUNIST party that is ruled by technocrats who specialize engineering and economics… it is now just an authoritarian country whose ruling party's name happens to be 'CPC'. Is the CPC communist? The founder of Alibaba and the richest man in China, Jack Ma just joined CPC. There is literally nothing Communist about a political party that allows the bourgeoisie to become a member. It is repressive true that it autocratic and non-democratic, also true… it shares some repressive nature that most communist party had. yet the once collectively owned properties and land in the rural China are now owned by the individual villagers, whose private property right is now legally guaranteed by the state (a very recent and still in process development). The nationalized land are de facto SOLD and CHARGED by the government in a monetary transaction to private owned developers. 30% of its economy is owned by the state. In Russia it is 33%, in France it is 30% and in Norway it is 72% in Singapore it is 60%. This number is 95%-99% in North Korea and 93%-99% in Cuba (it is of course not precise since underground economy and black markets are difficult to track). I would assume that either both France and Norway are "communistic" or that China is NOT communist. Important to point out that socialism, communism and social democracy did play crucial roles in their politics. China after 1978 slowly moved from one extreme (radical left) to another (neo-classical/Keynesian/statist) (sort of)

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    JERRY Wzhang

    In 1609, the Japanese invasion of the Ming Dynasty, the country of the Ryukyu Kingdom, ceded his Amami Islands. In 1879, Japan annexed the Qing Dynasty to the Kingdom of Ryukyu. The Ryukyu Kingdom belongs to the current Japanese colony.The Korean Peninsula is also the country of the Ming Dynasty .藩属国

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    JERRY Wzhang

    A vassal state is a country that has a certain sovereignty in name and is actually subordinate to and subject to other countries in terms of internal affairs, diplomacy, and economics. The most typical form of the country is a vassal state or a semi-colonial.

    As far as China is concerned, China has had a vassal state since the Western Han Dynasty. China’s dynasties have adopted a policy of sympathy for the vassal countries. They have been weak and have little intervention in their internal affairs, but they have provided protection for them free of charge.

    Emperor Yongzheng believed that: "All the surrendered states are all licensed." In the history textbooks compiled by the late Qing Dynasty, the surrounding enacted countries became the colonies of Europe and the United States and Japan, or were included in the territory of the map, not as a world history. It is described as part of the “Chinese (national) history”. Sun Wen and others believe that compared with the imperialist arrogance of force and the establishment of a colony, the relationship between the ancestral and the vassal will not make the use of force to make the other party more convinced. The discussion about China's rapid economic development in the 21st century is also a lineage of this view. [1]

    For Western countries, it is a country that has nominal sovereignty and is actually attached to and controlled by the Western imperialist powers in terms of diplomacy, economy, and military. In the stage of monopoly capitalism, Western imperialist countries occupy many colonies [ 2] At the same time, for the sake of their own interests, sometimes some backward countries maintain their independence politically and formally, but they are subordinate to finance and diplomacy [3]

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    Jofiel Korvin Marquez

    i wish the KMT won i hate communist that's practically the only reason why i hate chinese toys,food,words,people

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    Zeren The Unskilled

    I'm from the US and while I'd love to visit China and learn more about it's rich history, your government frightens me a bit more than my own does. Maybe once things calm down again I'll feel a bit better about visiting, but for now, and for the last 15 years, y'all's government terrifies me.

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    Chu Feng

    This smells of propaganda.
    China is number one economy in the world dude.
    All of this they have to thank their current
    presicent Xi and his harsh work (man never rests).

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    TheBluePC 5

    Think that Canada decided to give Quebec to USA

    If that happened will Canada have to give 1/3 of it's military to USA?

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    Quentin Giblet

    Hey! Just a comment, about the long march. The KMT attack on CPC was to dislodge them from the strongholds they had built. I d like to see mentioned the "jiangxi Soviet republic" and their experiments, it's a key to understanding the whole civil war.

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    obiee

    I talked to this Chinese guy that was against communism in China and the next day it's on my recommended videos wtf…

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    Bram Waqué

    Nothing about the opium wars:o. The real reason for the downfall of China is the British empire!!

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    huang peter

    the japanese had a easy time taking manchuria not because all kmt forces were occupied with the cpc, zhang xueliang had 160000 troops in manchuria but due to his warlord attitude he didnt want to lose his troops and save as much power as possible, therefore issuing the "no resistance" order. the kmt is very sectarian, chang is only in power by a small portion, many conspired against him such as zhang, they are only in the same place because japan is a common enemy. chang still wanted to waste troops trying to pursue the cpc and he only changed his mind after student protests and house arrest from zhang at the xi'an incident. also the map was labeled wrong at many occasions. even after the united front was formed and all chinese forces are called to repel the japanese, many kmt forces still retained their wish to be the most powerful of china, only being loosely connected to each other.

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    Ifan Tomos

    It was and still is communist. Yes, it's adopted free markets(just) But private property rights are still not recognised on matters such as land(farming) and copyright infringement (just look at all the rip-offs of western goods)

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    Darth Krul

    7:36
    big beard

    smaller beard

    beard and mustache

    mustache

    no facial hair… evolution of Communist leaders ( kind of)

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    Han

    So the PRC slaughtered 1000s of students at Tiananmen Square despite being founded by students!? (T T) Mao definitely slowed down China. Look at Taiwan, China would have been much stronger if not for Mao

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    Wikipedia Intellectual

    Honestly if there could be an unbiased TV series about these events, this has potential to be one of the most epic stories of all time.

  49. Post
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    Cody Shi

    Armchair Historians I would have to disagree with you on one thing. What makes you think that the reason why Chang Kai Shek want to purge the communist because the communist are plotting against the KMT?

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    RAsplez 98

    It was a very strange period of history since the Chinese used to be a very proud people. It's surprising they would opt to become communist rather than retake the mandate of heaven or at least modernise the country into a western democracy. It's almost as if Japan shattered their cultural identity and they forgot who the are or used to be, treating the prestigious empire of decades before as if it was some ancient forgotten realm that was unfamiliar to them, despite anyone over the age of 30-40 Actually living within it before it's collapse in 1911. One of the oldest civilisations and ancient superpowers on the planet just completely lost itself for really no particular reason, unless their sense of defeatism was really that powerful.

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    S. Young

    You miserably failed to mention the millions of financial support and military equipment that the U.S. Government aided to the Nationalist during the last Civil War and that Nationalist croonies personally lined their pockets with much of that financial assistance and the inherent corruption that was within the Nationalist itself. Not only that but other financial contributions from overseas Chinese that went to waste on the Nationalist as well. They had more money, more equipment, not only that but more modern equipment and their numbers were larger yet they still lost.

  56. Post
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    Steven Melkonyan

    1922
    Soviet union: yay im communist
    chinese civil war
    1949
    soviet union: welcome to the communist family. now get to work.

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    Cody Shi

    The KMT and the CPC should’ve stand and work together, because both of them see Sun Yet Sen as the founding father of China.

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    Ron Haag

    Another reason the Chi-Coms prevailed over Gen. Chaing Kai Chek's nationalists: the Communists weren't corrupt like Gen. Chang & his wife were. Nor did Mao Se Tung & his fellow communist overlook American oil companies shipment of oil that fueled Japan's Imperial Navy; without that their navy could never have shipped Japanese troops to Manchuria. Pres. Roosevelt should've imposed his oil embargo much sooner than 1941.

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    Applegryn Abutar

    Chinese when fighting Mongols: 10%

    Chinese when fighting the Japanese:10%

    Chinese when fighting the PEFTOK soldiers: 10%

    Chinese when fucking fighting their own kind: 100%

    Chinese when fighting against unarmed student protesters: 200%

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    Serik Aralbayev

    The map is wildly inaccurate. U've captured entire eastern Kazakstan as part of China, that never been part of China. DO BETTER RESEARH before making videos

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    Yuheng Wen

    Something that I find that arguable here is that during the long march, it wasnt like the whole 28 once-study in Soviet Union leader leading the CPC, only Wang Ming and a few was in the high rank though by that time leaders in CPC with Soviet Union background were definitely more favored

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    Cody Shi

    I still can’t believe that Dr. Sun Yat Sen gave up his presidency to Yuan Shika.

    I hate the Chinese Civil, after WW2 they should’ve been more unified then divided. They should understand this, “United we stand, Divided we Fall.”

  69. Post
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    William A

    if you think the chinese are still communist, youre insane. i knew a chinese exchange student.. he told me in their history books Mao got a whole paragraph and that they didnt even talk about him much any more. theyve adopted some weird ass form of fascism and capitalism once party leaders realized how rich they could get by doing so

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    ruihang yu

    you had forget some reasons that the westerns won't teach you. during the war, most generals of the high command offices had runs away from the battle fronts. the officers and government was under corruption like the former qing dynasty in the 19th century. and also in the middle of the year, the KMT decided to dig open the yellow river to stop the Japanese tropes in central china, it had cause around over millions of the civilians died but only stooped 2 japan division for 2 months. there are still lots of things that was embarrassing for civilians. so they give up kmt and accept communism.
    for the starvings, it was mostly because the corruption inside the government and the army. as same as the soviet great purge, some of the high commands used this chance to take more money and lands from the country, purge the ones who was good. although chairman mao had found he was wrong at some parts it was too late. it was also related with that the westerns except soviet had cut off the supply to china because korean war.

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    303en

    Truly was a shame, the chinese suffered so much death and misery from the Japanese, about 8-10 Million dead. But then they seemed to forget all that and just start fighting each other. Hm, just human nature i suppose, now that their main enemy was gone, they turned on each other once more.

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    Коммунист

    Why is China Communist ?
    Because the Soviet union helped the communists that want communism in China.The Soviet union supported communists in China.

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    mbmhs

    Mao Say Dung murdered more people than anyone has ever killed in human history, and it was all his own people, in several attempts at some sort of ridiculous, self defeating, communist "progress." He is the worst possible leader, the worst leader imaginable.

    …Now watch people defend him in the comments, or defend his style of government, communism.

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    Simon Wood

    Capitalism kills 20 million people per year, that's more people in 5 years than were ever killed by socialism.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QnIsdVaCnUE

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    Kabutoes

    The KMT fought so hard for so long, that when the war was over, China didn’t have a population that met the demands for the government, but a population that demanded more from the government. Unlike Britain and the USSR, the Chinese did not have the industrial and political capacity to fulfill a growing desperate people.

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    Julia's Scissor

    The map is a bit incorrect, Qing had already lost some of its territories in Northwest and especially the Northeast to Russia during the time of the second opium war. They would have a modern day border in these regions by the time of 1860 onwards

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    yourbadday89

    Poor kuomintang.. dudes got fucked so bad by the sneaky comunists pretending to help while leaving them to die in the front lines. One of the saddest stories I've heard

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    Mark Javier

    Mao was faced with the same issue that Stalin faced when the USSR was formed: they both had to do 50 years of industrialization in just 10 years

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    Taivanbat Ariunbold

    I 'd like to point out the INACCURACIES in the map showing the northern border of China too close to lake Baikal, As if Outer Mongolia was part of the Chinese Republic and making it look like the Chinese Army fought the Japanese in and from the Mongolian territories. Please Correct this mistake and be a little more responsible when showing historical conflicts on maps!

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    Nunyo Bisnus

    Hope China feels good about overthrowing the Republic. Taiwan is a huge global trading partner with wealthy citizens while China is still under the communist party’s watchful eye

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    Der griechische Vlogger

    Idk if it's relevant or not but in case the KMT won the civil war , would China still be the biggest superpower of the globe ?

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    Michael Porter

    This is some anti-communist nonsense. The nationalist thought of the Communists as a bigger enemy then the Japanese and that why the people went with the Communists who focused on the real enemy.

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    Patrick Chan

    Contrary to popular belief that if military school headmaster – Chang Kai shiek were the President of China till these days, China would be a much better place. Not so, we reckon that China would likely be something only better than India. With older problems still remained and the country constantly in a dilemma to make progress and head to the future.

    Mao may not be widely accepted internationally just because of the communist branding. Communist ideology is a western lemon product . One of the worst western import into China.

    Nevertheless, no thanks to Communism ,Mao and his generation have established a platform for the future generations of Chinese to march towards the future.

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