The Portuguese Civil War – The War of the Two Brothers

The Portuguese Civil War – The War of the Two Brothers


As was told in the last Portuguese history
video, there was a civil war between the two sons of D. João VI, one being a liberal and
another an absolutist. The Succession
The death of D. João VI in 1826 created a dispute about the royal succession. The heir should have been the eldest son D.
Pedro, however because of a sequence of events that led to the independence of Brazil on
the 7th of September of 1822 he lost all the rights to the Portuguese throne. Due to this, the rightful heir had now became
his other son, D. Miguel, who had been exiled after he lead two defenses against the liberal
revolts of 1820, which implemented a constitutional monarchy in Portugal. So the regency was trusted to Isabel Maria
de Bragança, the 4th daughter of D. João VI, who disregarding any succession laws,
named D. Pedro which at this time was emperor of brazil as the successor to the throne and
in 1826, He claimed the title as D. Pedro IV of Portugal. However, the Brazilian constitution of 1824
forbade it, so again, ignoring the succession laws, about one month after, he abdicated
to his daughter D. Maria, who was at the time 7 years old. In April of 1826, D. Pedro reviewed the Portuguese
constitution of 1822, allowed his brother to return to Portugal and himself returned
to brazil, leaving behind his daughter with his siblings, D. Miguel and Isabel Maria de
Bragança that would serve as her regents until she became old enough to reign and marry
her uncle D. Miguel. Turmoil
In the constitutional monarchy, there were basically two factions, the liberals and the
absolutists. And when D. Pedro IV made all the changes
mentioned before, the absolutists weren’t satisfied with them and continue to consider
D. Miguel the rightful successor to the throne, basing their claim on the fact that contrary
to his brother that decided to make an ex-colony independent and now ruled over it and declared
war against Portugal, D. Miguel actually returned to Portugal and fought for it. In February of 1828, D. Miguel came to Portugal
and swore the constitution to be able to be regent. However, he was immediately named king by
the general populous and his close followers pressured him to reign like the old kings
did, using the courts. In May of the same year, he invoked the traditional
courts with a nobility, the clergy and the free men to proclaim his power and in the
23rd of June, after the court made the necessary preparations, it declared D. Miguel, now the
first, as the rightful king of Portugal, making clear how legitimate D. Miguel was and how
illegitimate D. Pedro was. This act was based on the “Cortes de Lamego”
which ruled at the time and named that D. Pedro and his descendants would lose all claims
to the Portuguese throne if at any time D. Pedro became ruler of any other country or
if he ever revolted against Portugal, both of which conditions he broke. With this series of events, D. Miguel annulled
the liberal constitution and was crowned D. Miguel I. The civil war
In the beginning, the absolutists looked like the inevitable winners and the liberals looked
like a lost cause. D. Miguel tried to get international recognition
for his government, but only the U.S and the Vatican recognized it, all the other European
monarchies stayed silent on the issue… Portugal at the time was living a hellish
financial crisis due to the various conflicts both internal and external, the fall apart
of the Portuguese empire, the peninsular war and the growing loss of trade routes to foreigners. Emperor D. Pedro I, unsatisfied with his position
and unable to solve both the Brazilian and Portuguese problems at the same time, in 7th
of April 1831 was forced to abdicate the Brazilian throne to his son, Emperor D. Pedro II of
Brazil. After the abdication, he travelled to Portugal
in order to defend his daughter’s claim to the Portuguese throne and to restore the
constitutional monarchy abolished by his brother. In the same year, Pedro landed with his troops
in the Azores and took control of many islands, making this archipelago his base of operations. He managed to capture the strong military
and naval position of Angra as well as their soldiers and fleet, from where and with such,
D. Pedro would later use to invade mainland Portugal. In the 8th of July 1832, D. Pedro and his
army landed in the Thief’s beach, later renamed to Memory’s Beach in Vila do Conde,
this event became know as the “Landing at Mindelo”, where now stands a monument to
all the casualties of the civil war. After the hard fought and successful landing,
the liberals marched to Oporto when they entrenched themselves inside the walls of the city as
the absolutist troops began the long and harsh siege of Oporto. After a while, a small liberal fleet managed
to breech the naval blockade of the siege and rapidly sailed to the Algarve where it
landed a division of the liberal army. This division rapidly marched towards Lisbon
to capture it, which they did without any resistance due to all the absolutist soldiers
being in the siege of Oporto. Due to the capture of Lisbon in august of
1833, the siege of Oporto officially ended. After this event, the war continued with forced
marches through Coimbra, Leiria and Ribatejo, where D. Miguel established his court in the
city of Santarém. In the 22nd of April 1834, the treaty of London
was signed and two days later the quadruple alliance was created (composed of France,
Spain, The United Kingdom and Portugal) and agreed on a military intervention against
D. Miguel I. As the British admiral Charles Napier landed
his Portuguese troops in Figueira da Foz, advancing through Leiria and Torres Novas,
the Spanish general José Ramón Rodil y Campillo entered Portugal though the eastern border
of the Beira and Alto Alentejo with a 15000 men strong expedition. This eventually led to the decisive battle
of Asseiceira where an around 7000 men strong liberal army defeated a 6000 men strong absolutist
one, with minor casualties on its side and leaving the absolutists with 2900 casualties
and injuries and 1400 men captured by the liberals, with the rest of the army fleeing
to the Alentejo. This meant peace and the peace treaty was
signed on the 26th of May, in the Concession of Evoramonte, where it was determined that
D. Maria shall return from exile in London, where she had stayed with her cousin, Queen
Victoria, back to Portugal and the former King D. Miguel I, should be exiled to Germany,
restoring the constitutional monarchy that only ended in 1910. The End of a war between brothers
After the war ended, D. Pedro had a low life expectancy since he contracted tuberculosis
during the war and, as such, needed to hurry the coronation of his daughter, D. Maria II
of Portugal, swearing once more the constitution and officially ending the regency of D. Pedro
IV that ended up known as a hero for liberating Portugal from his brother. However, his brother never fully abdicated
from the Portuguese Throne and after landing in Genoa he protested a document against the
quadruple alliance and that the Concession of Evoramonte had little to no value that
would be called “The Protest and Declaration of Genoa”. Many of his descendants followed his steps
and, even to this day, one of the most legitimate heirs to the throne of Portugal, Duarte Pio
de Bragança, is his great grandson. Thanks for watching this video, leave a like
and subscribe if you enjoyed this tale of a brotherly rivalry, and if you want to see
more content like this one. See you next time!

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    Bernardo Júlio

    I bet someone is going to make a coment in favor of the restoration of the monarchy, like in every other video about the Portuguese Monarchy on YouTube

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    Francisco Teixeira

    So concise and to the point. Loved it. I actually worked on a reconstitution of the return of the king at mindelo where the obelisk is. With dressed up soldiers and all.
    That is one piece of historical landmark. The Unvanquished City will remain so no matter who tries to siege it, kids!

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    HackdogBoi 3000

    7:50 d. Duarte é o homem mais legítimo a croa portuguesa porque os descendentes de d Pedro fugiram depois da revolução democrática 1910

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    Danthood30

    The pauses are noticeable also the first minute there was a small sound issue the pauses work perfectly

    Many islands not island

    I remember that style of troop movement make sure to make your on style in the future

    Good job

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    GamerSuper YogiPT

    Para ser sincero, gostava que o D.Miguel I ganhasse a guerra! D.Pedro IV já estava no Brasil e foi um traidor para a Nação, vai para a puta que te pareu!
    Bom vídeo! Explicaste muito bem! Abraços!

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    CruzadosBr

    Que podre Dom Pedro I e IV nunca perdeu os direitos do trono de Portugal para Dom Miguel e mesmo se tivesse perdido o trono seguiria a linha de sucessão como acordado e iria para unica filha de Dom Pedro nascida no Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves. Alem de que Dom Miguel nem filho legitimo de Dom joão era e este queria fazer de tudo para que Pedro assumisse o trono tanto que no tratado do rio de janeiro foi concedido a ele o titulo de Imperador de jure e fato do Brasil firmando o reconhecimento de Portugal ao Imperio. O próprio Dom Miguel estava exilado alias por tentar derrubar o pai e tomar o trono pois sabia que nunca seria Rei todavia ele e sua mãe mais tarde conseguiram matar Dom joão envenenado tomando o trono quebrando o acordo de se casar com a filha de Dom Pedro e fazer parte da linhagem real ( Seu pai alias alguns dizem ser o duque de Abrantes outros um moço das estrebarias). E sem herdeiros do ramo de Bragança de Dom Pedro o trono de Portugal passa hoje aos descendentes do irmão de Dona Maria da Gloria nascido no Imperio do Brasil como Varão logo para os Orleans e Bragança do Ramo de Petrópolis ou Vassouras Dom Duarte como seus ascendentes não passa de um engodo um proto usurpador eles não terem nascido em Portugal nem é desculpa já que Dom Duarte nascera na Suíça e para complementar casou-se com uma descendente do Visconde de Ribeira Brava responsável pelo regicídio de um REI Bragança legitimo e seu herdeiro.

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    linguistically oversight 86

    Married her uncle 😨😨😨am I the only person in the comments weirded out by that 😲🤔

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